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Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 11 Emotions, Stress and Health.

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Presentation on theme: "Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 11 Emotions, Stress and Health."— Presentation transcript:

1 Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 11 Emotions, Stress and Health

2 Emotion  Emotion  a response of the whole organism  _________________

3 Theories of Emotion  Does your heart pound because you are afraid... or are you afraid because you feel your heart pounding?

4 _________________  _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Fear (emotion) Pounding heart (arousal) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)

5 _________________  ___________________ ___________________ __________________  physiological responses  subjective experience of emotion Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal) Fear (emotion)

6 _________________  To experience emotion one must:  be physically aroused  ____________ _____ Cognitive label “I’m afraid” Fear (emotion) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal)

7 Emotion and Physiology Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal Sympathetic division (arousing) Pupils dilate Decreases Perspires Increases Accelerates Inhibits Secrete stress hormones Parasympathetic division (calming) Pupils contract Increases Dries Decreases Slows Activates Decreases secretion of stress hormones EYES SALIVATION SKIN RESPIRATION HEART DIGESTION ADRENAL GLANDS

8 Emotion - Lie Detectors  Polygraph  machine commonly used in attempts to detect lies  measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion  perspiration  cardiovascular  breathing changes

9 Emotion - A Polygraph Examination

10 Emotion - Lie Detectors  50 Innocents  50 Thieves  1/3 of innocent declared guilty  1/4 of guilty declared innocent (from Kleinmuntz & Szucko, 1984)

11 Expressed Emotion  People more speedily detect an angry face than a happy one (Ohman, 2001a)

12 Expressed Emotion  Gender and expressiveness Men Women Sad Happy Scary Film Type 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Number of expressions

13 Expressed Emotion  _________________

14 Experienced Emotion  Infants’ naturally occurring emotions

15 Experienced Emotion  _________________  emotional release  catharsis hypothesis  “releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges  Feel-good, do-good phenomenon  people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

16 Happiness is... Researchers Have Found That Happy People Tend to Have high self-esteem (in individualistic countries) Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable Have close friendships or a satisfying marriage Have work and leisure that engage their skills Have a meaningful religious faith Sleep well and exercise However, Happiness Seems Unrelated to Other Factors, Such as Age Gender (women are more often depressed, but also more often joyful) Education levels Parenthood (having children or not) Physical attractiveness

17 Stress and Illness  _____________  the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging

18 Stress Appraisal Stressful event (tough math test) Threat (“Yikes! This is beyond me!”) Challenge (“I’ve got to apply all I know”) Panic, freeze up Aroused, focused Appraisal Response

19 Stress and Illness  ____________ ____________ ___________  Selye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three stages Stress resistance Phase 1 Alarm reaction (mobilize resources) Phase 2 Resistance (cope with stressor) Phase 3 Exhaustion (reserves depleted) The body’s resistance to stress can last only so long before exhaustion sets in Stressor occurs

20 Stress and Health  _________________  subfield of psychology that provides psychology’s contribution to behavioral medicine

21 Stress and the Heart Hopelessness scores 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Heart attack Death Low riskModerate riskHigh risk Men who feel extreme hopelessness are at greater risk for heart attacks and early death

22 Stress and the Heart  _________________  clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle  leading cause of death in many developed countries

23 Stress and the Heart  _________________  Friedman and Rosenman’s term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people  _________________ Friedman and Rosenman’s term for easygoing, relaxed people

24 Stress and Disease  _________________  “mind-body” illness  any stress-related physical illness  some forms of hypertension  some headaches  distinct from hypochondria— misinterpreting normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease

25 Stress and Disease  _________________  two types of white blood cells that are part of the body’s immune system  B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections  T lymphocytes form in the thymus and, among other duties, attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances

26 Stress and Disease  Conditioning of immune suppression UCS (drug) UCR (immune suppression) UCS (drug) UCR (immune suppression) CS (sweetened water) CS (sweetened water) CR (immune suppression)

27 Promoting Health  Aerobic Exercise  sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness Depression score 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 Before treatment evaluation After treatment evaluation No-treatment group Aerobic exercise group Relaxation treatment group

28 Promoting Health  Modifying Type A life-style can reduce recurrence of heart attacks Percentage of patients with recurrent heart attacks (cumulative average) 65432106543210 Year 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 Life-style modification patients Control patients Modifying life-style reduced recurrent heart attacks

29 Promoting Health  Social support across the life span 12-14 18-19 25-34 45-54 65-74 15-17 20-24 35-44 55-64 75+ Age in years 100% 90 80 70 60 50 Percentage with high support

30 Promoting Health  Religious Attendance

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