2 Logos The Greek word “logos” means word or language or reason. English translation=logicIt is concerned with the facts and the way in which they interact.The best question to ask regarding this method of persuasion is “What sense does it make?”
3 Examples of LogosWhen you tell your teacher that you should receive an ‘A’ on the assignment because you do better work than anyone else.“ What democracy requires is public debate, not information. Of course it needs information too, but the kind of information it needs can be generated only by vigorous popular debate. We do not know what we need to know until we ask the right questions, and we can identify the right questions only by subjecting our ideas about the world to the test of public controversy.” –Christopher Lasch.
4 Ethos The Greek word “ethos” is the root for our word “ethics.” English translation= character, trust.It is concerned with the way in which the writer is perceived by the audience.The key questions to ask when considering ethos is “Do I trust this writer?”
5 Examples of EthosWhen you carefully practice the words that you will say when you ask the teacher for that ‘A’ on the assignment, and you dress particularly well that day.“I think I should indicate why I am here in Birmingham, since you have been influenced by the view which argues against "outsiders coming in.”...I, along with several members of my staff, am here because I was invited here. I am here because I have organizational ties here.” –MLK Jr.
6 Pathos “Pathos,” in Greek, means suffering. English translation= emotion.It corresponds with the audience and is concerned with the emotional responses of the audience to the writing.The key question here is “How is the audience moved by this?”
7 Examples of PathosWhen you tell the teacher how difficult it is for you to get along with your parents when you do not get ‘A’s’ on assignments.“All this tradition of ours, our songs, our School history, this part of the history of this country, were gone and finished and liquidated. Very different is the mood today. Britain, other nations thought, had drawn a sponge across her slate. But instead our country stood in the gap. There was no flinching and no thought of giving in; and by what seemed almost a miracle to those outside these Islands, though we ourselves never doubted it, we now find ourselves in a position where I say that we can be sure that we have only to persevere to conquer.“ –Winston Churchill.
9 Rhetorical Triangle These terms were first used by the Ancient Greeks. Most great speeches or arguments appeal to these three techniques.Persuasion is an art that expresses a person’s or institution’s opinion and tries to make its audience agree with the stand taken, change the opinions of others, and sometimes take action.
10 Logos, Ethos or Pathos?“I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not bejudged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.”--MLK Jr., “I Have a Dream”
11 Logos, Ethos or Pathos?When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, fromevery state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, blackmen and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands andsing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last! free at last! Thank God Almighty, we arefree at last!“--MLK Jr. “I Have a Dream”
12 Logos, Ethos, Pathos?“I come before you tonight as a candidate for the Vice Presidency and as a man whose honesty and integrity have been questioned.”--President Nixon, “Checkers Speech”
13 Logos, Ethos or Pathos?“As president, I will tap our natural gas reserves, invest in clean coal technology, andfind ways to safely harness nuclear power. I'll help our auto companies retool, so thatthe fuel-efficient cars of the future are built right here in America. I'll make it easier forthe American people to afford these new cars.”--President Obama, “Democratic Nomination”
14 Logos, Ethos, Pathos?“Now that, my friends, is not Nixon speaking, but that's an independent audit which was requested because I want the American people to know all the facts and I'm not afraid of having independent people go in and check the facts, and that is exactly what they did.”--President Nixon, “Checkers Speech”
15 Logos, Ethos or Pathos?“It is that promise that has always set this country apart — that through hard work andsacrifice, each of us can pursue our individual dreams but still come together as oneAmerican family, to ensure that the next generation can pursue their dreams as well.”--President Obama, “Democratic Nomination”
16 First ScenarioPersuade your parents to buy you a brand new car.