Presentation on theme: "Key Terms Punic Wars Empire Pax Romana Coach Smith."— Presentation transcript:
Key Terms Punic Wars Empire Pax Romana Coach Smith
The Romans were successful conquerors. They copied the battle tactics of the Greeks and Macedonians.
The Romans split their legions into smaller, highly mobile forces of 100 men called centuries. The Romans were successful conquerors. They allowed some conquered people to govern themselves while granting limited citizenship to others. Coach Smith
The Romans also conscripted conquered soldiers into their legions.
In 264 B.C., Rome came into conflict with another great Mediterranean power-the Phoenician city of Carthage in North Africa. In three Punic Wars, Rome struggled with Carthage for control of the Western Mediterranean Sea. Ultimately, Rome destroyed Carthage. Coach Smith
During the second Punic War, the great Carthaginian general, Hannibal, attacked Rome from the North.
Coach Smith Initially, Hannibal experienced military success. However, he could not conquer the Italian peninsula.
Coach Smith Hannibal even used elephants in his military campaign.
Ultimately, Rome destroyed Carthage. The Roman army ruined the land of Carthage and sold its surviving people into slavery. The Romans became kings of the Mediterranean Sea. Coach Smith
As the Roman army experienced greater success, Roman generals became increasingly powerful and popular. Generals, like Julius Caesar, wanted more power.
As generals became increasingly powerful, Rome ceased to be a republic and became an empire. An empire is a state that rules over different cultures. Eventually, an emperor ruled Rome. Coach Smith
Julius Caesar threatened to seize power and become a dictator. However, Senators assassinated him in 44 B.C.
Coach Smith Eventually, Caesar’s adopted son, Octavian, became the first Roman emperor. He was called Augustus Caesar and his rule began a long period of peace in the Roman Empire known as the Pax Romana or Roman Peace.
Why was the Roman army successful? What were the Punic Wars? How did Rome treat Carthage after its victory? Who was Julius Caesar and what did he do? Why did Rome become an empire? Who was Augustus Caesar and what was the Pax Romana? Coach Smith
Choose one of the following: Alternative History: Julius Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March, 4 years into his reign as dictator. He was killed because he changed Rome from a republic to a dictatorship. WHAT IF he wasn’t assassinated? Do you believe Rome would have been different? Explain how his longer rule would have changed world history. Historical Research: How was Carthage’s fate at the end of the Third Punic War similar to the fate of the city of Lidice, Czechoslovakia during World War II. Coach Smith