Presentation on theme: "E. Napp Moving Toward Empire In this lesson, students will be able to identify various factors which led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise."— Presentation transcript:
E. Napp Moving Toward Empire In this lesson, students will be able to identify various factors which led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. Students will be able to identify and/or define the following terms: Punic Wars Empire Pax Romana
E. Napp The Romans were successful conquerors. They copied the battle tactics of the Greeks and Macedonians.
E. Napp Roman Conquerors The Romans split their legions into smaller, highly mobile forces of 100 men called centuries. The Romans were successful conquerors. They allowed some conquered people to govern themselves while granting limited citizenship to others.
E. Napp The Romans also conscripted conquered soldiers into their legions.
E. Napp The Punic Wars In 264 B.C., Rome came into conflict with another great Mediterranean power-the Phoenician city of Carthage in North Africa. In three Punic Wars, Rome struggled with Carthage for control of the Western Mediterranean Sea. Ultimately, Rome destroyed Carthage.
E. Napp During the second Punic War, the great Carthaginian general, Hannibal, attacked Rome from the North.
E. Napp Initially, Hannibal experienced military success. However, he could not conquer the Italian peninsula.
E. Napp Hannibal even used elephants in his military campaign.
E. Napp A Total Defeat Ultimately, Rome destroyed Carthage. The Roman army ruined the land of Carthage and sold its surviving people into slavery. The Romans became kings of the Mediterranean Sea.
E. Napp As the Roman army experienced greater success, Roman generals became increasingly powerful and popular. Generals, like Julius Caesar, wanted more power.
E. Napp The End of the Republic As generals became increasingly powerful, Rome ceased to be a republic and became an empire. An empire is a state that rules over different cultures. Eventually, an emperor ruled Rome.
E. Napp Julius Caesar threatened to seize power and become a dictator. However, Senators assassinated him in 44 B.C.
E. Napp Eventually, Caesar’s adopted son, Octavian, became the first Roman emperor. He was called Augustus Caesar and his rule began a long period of peace in the Roman Empire known as the Pax Romana or Roman Peace.
E. Napp Questions for Reflection: Why was the Roman army successful? What were the Punic Wars? How did Rome treat Carthage after its victory? Who was Julius Caesar and what did he do? Why did Rome become an empire? Who was Augustus Caesar and what was the Pax Romana?