Presentation on theme: "Essential Question: What were the lasting characteristics of the Roman Republic & the Roman Empire? Warm-Up Question: What is the difference between “Greek."— Presentation transcript:
1 Essential Question:What were the lasting characteristics of the Roman Republic & the Roman Empire?Warm-Up Question:What is the difference between “Greek democracy” & the “Roman republic”?Name 3 ideas the Romans borrowed from the Greeks
2 By the 3rd century B.C., the Romans conquered the Italian peninsula & began to exert power in the Mediterranean worldBut, the growth of Rome threatened Carthage, the superpower of the Mediterranean world
3 In a series of battles known as the Punic Wars, Rome defeated Carthage & began the dominant power in the Mediterranean
4 From Roman Republic to Empire Wars with CarthagePunic Wars – (264 – 146 B.C.)Three wars took place:
5 From Roman Republic to Empire Wars with Carthage – Punic WarsIn the first war, Rome defeats Carthage & claims Sicily, Corsica & Sardinia.
6 From Roman Republic to Empire Wars with Carthage - Punic WarsIn the second war, Carthage is seeking revenge. Hannibal & a vast army of 50,000 men, 9000 cavalry & 60 elephants crosses the Pyrenees Mountains, through France & the Alps in Italy.Half of Hannibal’s army was lost; however, he surprised the Romans (attacking from the north) who were expecting an attack from the south.For 15 years, Hannibal moves across Italy winning battle after battle.A Roman general, Scipio, planned an attack on Carthage. This forced Hannibal to return where he was defeated.Rome won the 2nd Punic War in which they almost lost.
7 From Roman Republic to Empire Wars with Carthage - Punic WarsFor years, Rome feared that Carthage would return. Eventually, Rome attacks & completely destroys Carthage.In the final war….Legend has it that the Romans burned the city of Carthage, killed or sold the survivors into slavery & poured salt on the there fields.
8 From Roman Republic to Empire New wealth flowed into RomeAfter the wars with Carthage, other conquests throughout the Mediterranean area led to great wealth.
9 After the Punic Wars, Rome conquered new territories & gained great wealth One of the generals who led Rome’s expansion was a politician named Julius Caesar
10 Problems for the Roman Republic Rome’s expansion brought wealth, but also created problems:The addition of new lands & sources of slave labor increased the gap between the rich & poorGenerals who controlled the armies became more powerful than the politicians in the SenateStruggles for power led to a series of civil wars in Rome
11 The Rise & Fall of Julius Caesar Julius Caesar took advantage of the chaos in Rome & was named dictator in 46 B.C.He initiated a series of reforms that offered Roman citizenship to conquered people & created new jobsMany Senators feared Caesar’s popularity & power as dictator of Rome
12 In 44 B.C., Senators assassinated Julius Caesar
13 The assassination led to another civil war led by Caesar’s adopted nephew Octavian & his best general, Marc Antony
14 End of the Republic & Rise of the Empire Caesar’s death changed Rome:People no longer trusted the Senate to rule Rome & the Roman Republic came to an end & the empire began
15 The Rise of the Roman Empire Octavian emerged as the unchallenged leader of Rome, was given the title Augustus (“Exalted One”), & became Rome’s first emperorUnder Augustus, Rome was ruled as an empire; the Senate still met but the emperor had all the real powerAugustus ruled Rome for 41 years
18 The Pax Romana Pax Romana Augustus’ 41 year reign marked the beginning of a 207-year era of peace, wealth, & expansion known as the Pax Romana (“the Roman Peace”) from 27 B.C. to 180 A.D.Pax Romana
19 During the Pax Romana, the empire expanded to its height & brought great wealth to Rome During the Pax Romana, emperors continued to expand
20 Roman aqueducts brought water to cities The Pax Romana became the “golden age” of Rome as emperors like Augustus built roads & a merit-based bureaucracy to rule the empireDuring the Pax Romana, emperors continued to expandRoman aqueducts brought water to cities
21 Roman architects used new styles like domes & concrete to beautify cities
22 Emperors built arenas & used chariot races, gladiator events, & theater to entertain the poor The Roman Coliseum
25 Conclusions Rome expanded from a city, to a republic, to an empire The era of the Roman Republic introduced representative democracyThe era of the Roman Empire sparked the Pax Romana & the “golden age” of Roman innovation & culture
26 Closure ActivityWould you rather live during the Roman Republic or the Empire?Provide at least 3 reasons why