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+ Tuesday, November 12th 4 day week Starting motivation/emotion today Get back grades!!! 1.

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Presentation on theme: "+ Tuesday, November 12th 4 day week Starting motivation/emotion today Get back grades!!! 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 + Tuesday, November 12th 4 day week Starting motivation/emotion today Get back grades!!! 1

2 + Matt Foley- Motivational Speaker It is not the WHOLE video….but it is a classic Chris Farley 2

3 + What makes people motivated?? 3

4 + Perspectives on Motivation

5 + Motivation and Emotion Motivation Specific need or desire, such as hunger, thirst, or achievement, that prompts goal-directed behavior a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal. Emotion Feeling, such as fear, joy, or surprise, that underlies behavior 5

6 + Motivation Motives are triggered by a stimulus (Incentive) Bodily conditions (low blood sugar) Cue in the environment (AP Test/College Success) Emotion - Feeling, such as fear, joy, or surprise, that underlies behavior When the stimulus creates goal-directed behavior it motivated the person 6

7 + What? Motivates you to study? To practice? To go to work? To do chores? 7

8 Perspectives on Motivation Five perspectives to explain motivation include the following: 8 1.Instinct Theory 2.Drive-Reduction Theory 3.Incentive Theory 4.Arousal Theory 5.Cognitive Theory

9 + Instinct Theory 9

10 Instincts & Evolutionary Psychology Instincts are complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout the species and are not learned (Tinbergen, 1951). 10 Where the woman builds different kinds of houses the bird builds only one kind of nest. © Ariel Skelley/ Masterfile Tony Brandenburg/ Bruce Coleman, Inc.

11 + Instincts Natural or inherited tendencies of an organism to make a specific response to certain environmental stimuli without involving reason. Examples: Salmon Humans- cleanliness, curiosity, parental love, sociability, sympathy 11

12 + Flaws with this theory Fell out of favor Human behavior is rarely inflexible and found throughout the species Simply label behaviors Humans have reflexes but not instincts? 12

13 + Drive Reduction Theory 13

14 Drive-Reduction Theory (Bodily Needs) A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need (Hull, 1951). 14 Tension

15 + Need Biological or physiological requirement of an organism Results from a lack of something desirable or useful Physiological need= oxygen, food to survive Psychological= self-esteem, social approval 15

16 + Drive An internal condition that can change over time and orients an individual toward a specific goal or goals Hunger=? Curiosity=? Rest=? 16

17 + Homeostasis 17 Food Drive Reduction Organism The physiological aim of drive reduction is homeostasis, the maintenance of a steady internal state – balance. The regulation of any aspect of body chemistry around a particular level Stomach Full Empty Stomach (Food Deprived)

18 + Drive Reduction When something is deprived of something it needs, it becomes agitated and tense. To release the tension, it engages in more or less random activity 18

19 + Two types of drives Primary drive Unlearned drive based on a physiological state found in all animals Motivate behavior necessary for survival Hunger, thirst and sex Secondary drive Learned drive – wealth or success Problem with Drive-Reduction – once homeostasis is achieved we ’ d never do anything Not just balance we ’ re looking for 19

20 + Incentive Theory 20

21 + Incentive Theory The incentive theory suggests that people are motivated to do things because of external rewards. For example, you might be motivated to go to work each day for the monetary reward of being paid. 21

22 + Kind of like Operant Conditioning… You can liken incentive theory to operant conditioning.operant conditioning Just as in operant conditioning, where behaviors are performed in order to either gain reinforcement or avoid punishment, incentive theory states that your actions are directed toward gaining rewards. 22

23 + Sandwich Example You may be really hungry; walk to the cafeteria; incentive is the sandwich we intend to eat Sometimes the drive is so great, we do not care that the incentive is weak If your drive is weak, the incentive must be strong 23

24 24 So… What is the difference between drive theory and incentive theory? Drive theory – Biological internal motivation (homeostasis) Incentive theory – Environmental motivation (not as much homeostasis, more outside factors)

25 + 25 When asked why he wants to become a doctor, Tom says, “ Because I ’ ve always liked biology and being a doctor will allow me to make a good salary to take care of my family. ” His answer is most consistent with which of the following theories of motivation? 1. Drive Reduction 2. Incentive 3. Hierarchy of Needs 4. Arousal 5. Instinct

26 + Arousal Theory 26

27 27 Arousal Theory: Arousal – level of alertness, wakefulness, and activation caused by activity in the CNS. The optimal level of arousal varies with the person and the activity. Yerkes-Dodson Law – We usually perform most activities best when we are moderately aroused. Challenge – moderately low level Easy – moderately high level The law also states that we perform worse when arousal is either to low or too high. Think about sports or driving a car

28 Optimum Arousal Human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it. Young monkeys and children are known to explore the environment in the absence of a need-based drive. 28 Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin Randy Faris/ Corbis

29 + Yerkes-Dodson Law 29

30 + Cognitive Theory 30

31 + Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation Motivation for a behavior is the behavior itself Playing basketball; football Children playing is an example Extrinsic motivation Behavior is performed in order to obtain a reward or to avoid punishment To reduce biological needs A bonus program is an example 31

32 + Over justification Effect The overjustification effect occurs when an expected external incentive such as money or prizes decreases a person's intrinsic motivation to perform a task. 32

33 + Venn Diagram… Using pages 312-317…. 33

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