Presentation on theme: "English Language and Composition AP TEST REVIEW. To prepare for the test… Study your AP rhetorical flash cards Quiz yourself Remember, you need to know."— Presentation transcript:
To prepare for the test… Study your AP rhetorical flash cards Quiz yourself Remember, you need to know these words to answer multiple choice questions AND to write the rhetorical analysis essay. Look at the prompts I have given you that we have not written in class. Think about how you would write those essays. Review the MLA format to prepare for those questions on the multiple choice section Look at essays I have graded and returned to you. What did you do well? What could you have done better?
Test Day Several pencils #2 Several black pens—no white out allowed YOU MUST USE A PEN ON THE ESSAY PORTION OF THE EXAM Eat Breakfast! BE HERE! BE EARLY!
. Multiple Choice Section: About 55 questions 1 hour 2. Essays Self-paced (40 minutes each + 15 minute reading period) Test Reminders 3 Hours and 15 minutes
Types of Multiple Choice Questions 1. The straightforward question 2. The question that refers you to specific lines and asks you to draw a conclusion or to interpret 3. The ALL… EXCEPT question 4. The question that asks you to make an inference or to abstract a concept not directly stated in the passage 5. The “killer” Roman numeral question 6. The footnote question
Specific Techniques Anticipate the right answer Figure out the answer BEFORE looking at the possible choices Eliminate obviously wrong answers Remember, you can write on the test Rhetorical strategy questions are usually straightforward Look for key words that make an answer wrong – cross it out Watch for answers that are too narrow or too broad – be wary of absolutes Be an ACTIVE READER – you know what this means! Annotating is not optional! Try to visualize the info as you read it – don’t try memorizing facts
Specific Techniques (continued) Every 10 questions, check to make sure you are bubbling the right answer Watch your time – don’t leave any unanswered Mentally paraphrase sections as you read Skip hard questions and come back to them Go back before moving on to the next passage Skim the questions before reading the passage Skip ones that have specific line numbers
Rhetorical Analysis This essay ask you to analyze another author’s use of: 1.structure 2. purpose 3. style Remember, you are writing about HOW they construct their argument, not merely what their argument is. Do not summarize!
Organizing Your Essay When writing your introduction paragraph, get to the point quickly. Don’t use information from the prompt to “pad” your intro Your body paragraphs should be all about what the writer said, how he said it, and why he said it the way he did for his purpose.
SAMPLE Analysis Questions Analyze an author’s view on a specific subject Analyze rhetorical devices used by an author to achieve his or her purpose Analyze stylistic elements in a passage and their effects Analyze the author’s tone and how the author conveys this tone Discuss the intended and/or probable effect of a passage
SAMPLE Analysis Questions Cont. Compare and/or contrast two passages with regard to style, purpose, or tone Analyze the author’s purpose and how he or she achieves it Analyze some of the ways an author recreates a real or imagined experience Analyze how an author presents him or herself in the passage
Elements of Style (Rhetorical Devices) 1. subject matter 2. selection of detail 3. organization 4. point of view 5. diction 6. figures of speech 7. tone
Reading the Prompt… Plan to spend a couple minutes carefully reading and deconstructing the question Circle or underline the essential terms and elements in the prompt If the prompt requires more than one element, you must use more than one! A.P. = Address the Prompt
WARNINGS… Avoid paraphrasing the material Use TEXTUAL evidence – Be specific Analyze the textual evidence— don’t just summarize/paraphrase it – say something about it and how it relates. Use transitions Vary your syntax Make SPECIFIC analysis! (Avoid: “The author’s diction”… “good syntax”… “keeps your attention”)
IMPORTANT: Connect every strategy to the author’s idea or main point. e.g. ‘Dillard uses violent imagery such as “crunching,” “bites,” and “splitting” in order to foreshadow her point at the end that people should shed their lackadaisical ways and live with passion.’ or e.g. ‘Words such as “bites,” “killing,” and “splitting,” foreshadow the intensity of her purpose.’
The Basics 2 Possibilities: A given text to support, qualify, or refute; or a broad issue upon which you must take a side If you are responding to a text, be sure you understand the position taken by the author Take a specific stand – you may qualify the claim, but be specific in what you support and what you don’t. You may also support or refute the prompt When supporting a prompt, you must include your own original ideas – don’t just parrot the prompt.
The Basics (cont.) Clearly and logically support your claim Argue your point(s) rationally despite how you may personally feel Remember, this is an essay not a diatribe Relevant anecdotal and/or outside information is good Connecting your experience to broader, more objective evidence is better Good to develop an ‘authorial voice,’ but be mindful of your audience (triangle!) As always, be sure you ADDRESS THE PROMPT!
EXAMPLES OF GOOD EVIDENCE FOR YOU TO USE IN YOUR RESPONSE Facts/ statistics Details Quotations Dialogue Needed definitions Recognition of the opposition Examples Anecdotes Contrasts and comparisons Cause and effect Appeal to authority
Classical Argumentative Scheme Part 1: Introductory Paragraph -catch interest -present the issue or topic with concrete image or anecdote -provide any relevant background information -define pertinent terms -state claim
Classical Argumentative Scheme Cont.. Part 2: Concession and Refutation -ignoring the other side is dangerous -find weaknesses within the opposing reasons, facts, testimonies, etc. -“yes,” is the concession; “but” is the refutation -you still must demonstrate that your claims are more valid -you may concede or refute in the introductory paragraph or through the body paragraphs as you bring up additional points
Classical Argumentative Scheme Cont. Part 3: Confirmation Paragraphs -the most important and longest section of the argument -provides the reasons and the evidence of a writer’s claim -shows the logical development of the argument -should include both logical reasons and evidence but also emotional appeals to human needs or values -incorporate other modes of discourse to further develop your writing
Classical Argumentative Scheme Cont. Part 4: Concluding Paragraph -wrap up the argument -restate the claim -provide a new appeal to needs or values -enrich with additional commentary -voice a final plea for readers to take action or to change thinking -refrain from repeating any information
What is the Purpose? The College Board wants to determine that you can: -Read critically -Understand texts -Analyze texts -Develop a position on a given topic -Support a position with appropriate evidence from outside sources -Incorporate outside sources into the text of the essay -Cite sources used -And most importantly, THINK for yourself
Source Possibilities Six or seven documents Short works At least one visual, non textual (charts, cartoons, tables, etc.) Black and white print Opposing views You are invited to join the conversation
Points to Remember YOU are choosing your view and using the sources to support that view Weaker writers have a tendency to paraphrase and list - don’t do that Use at least three sources Use them naturally Cite/ attribute sources Have a conversation with the texts – don’t merely report what they have to say Like in the open-ended prompt, you are welcome to support, qualify, and refute the sources!
Points to Remember (continued) Judge the validity of the sources Essays starting with an anecdote tend to score higher – if possible, refer back to it later in the essay You are welcome to add examples of real life scenarios and facts if they help prove your argument The vast majority of the essay needs to be YOUR thoughts As always, make sure you are answering the prompt
The test is 3 hrs and 15 minutes long. You have one hour for the first section, multiple choice. This section consists of 52-58 multiple choice questions over 4 or 5 passages, mostly nonfiction. (45% of score) Your have a fifteen minute reading period and then 2 hours to complete the 3 essays. The essays are prose analysis, argumentation, and synthesis. Sometimes a double passage requires you to compare and contrast 2 pieces based on rhetorical strategies. (55% of score)
Pay close attention to the connotation of words Pace yourself Annotate Remember HOW not plot summary