Presentation on theme: "Gender and Inequality How do different versions of feminism explain gender inequality? What are their strengths and weaknesses?"— Presentation transcript:
Gender and Inequality How do different versions of feminism explain gender inequality? What are their strengths and weaknesses?
Feminism A movement for the elimination of gender- based injustices and inequalities. Feminists believe that sex needs to be distinguished from gender. There are different ‘schools’ of feminist thought.
Liberal Feminism Liberal feminists seek equal rights with men. Liberal feminism has been highly successful in its quest for equal rights. However, they argue that inequalities and discrimination still persist.
Dual Labour Market The idea that there are two labour markets –Primary sector –Secondary sector This theory sees men concentrated in the primary sector and women in the secondary sector. The primary sector being much more attractive.
Marxist/Socialist Feminism Socialist and Marxist feminists share the view that capitalism is bad for men and women. Argue that capitalism altered relations between men and women. Recognise that the struggle is against sexism and patriarchy AND capitalism.
Reserve Army of Labour A large number of people outside the main labour market who can be hired when demand for labour is high and fired when demand is low. Feminists argue that in the modern world it is mainly women who fill the ranks of the reserve army.
Radical Feminism Radical feminists believe that there is a basic conflict between all men and all women. They believe that men use their collective power to ensure that society is run in their interests. Some believe that women can free themselves from patriarchal control by cutting themselves off from men.
Patriarchy The combination of social, economic and cultural systems which ensures male supremacy. Many criticisms of patriarchy as a concept. Implies nothing has changed over the years. It is too one-sided. Perpetuates a negative image on men.
Choice or Constraint Why is it that women spend more time than men doing housework and caring for children? Is it through choice or constraint?
Constraints This model argues that society imposes unfair constraints on women which limits their opportunities and life chances. Men still expect women to shoulder the main burden of childcare and domestic chores, so women may be forced into part time work. Women have often been marginalised in the work place. Further pressure is put on women by the prevailing ideology that men are the ‘real’ breadwinners.
Housework Not normally regarded as ‘real’ work since it is often unpaid. It makes a major hidden contribution to the economic welfare of a country. It is demanding and time consuming. There are broad gender differences in housework.
Choices This model states that women nowadays have the freedom to choose their own destinies. Yet many of them still decide to give priority to childcare.
The Hakim Debate Catherine Hakim accuses feminists of inventing their own myths about women’s work attitudes and behaviour. –Women’s employment has been rising –Women’s work commitment is the same as men’s –Childcare problems are the main barrier to women’s employment. –Part-time jobs are low quality –There is no gender difference in labour turnover
Postfeminist Approaches New ideas and directions developed in late 1980s and 1990s. –The end of feminism –A backlash against feminism –Power feminism –Difference feminism –New feminism
A Male Crisis In an age of high male unemployment, many males were confused about their ‘proper’ roles and identities. Young working class men would become increasingly marginalised in a world where most jobs no longer required physical strength. Middle-class men also looked to be under threat.