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Kingdom Plantae.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Plantae."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom Plantae

2 Introduction Plants are placed into 2 groups based on structural and
functional similarities, but all plants share the following characteristics. A. Eukaryotic B. Multicellular C. Have organs and organ systems E. Have cell walls composed of cellulose F. Are autotrophic G. Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast of plant cells CO2 + H2O  C6H12O6 + O2 H. All are non-motile Special adaptations are therefore required for reproduction

3 Plant Structure and Growth
A. Roots – Functions: Anchor the plant Absorb water and minerals Transport these materials to the stem Some plants store food in roots Each root has root hairs, increase surface area for water absorption

4 Plant Structure and Growth
B. Stems – Functions: Support for the plant Transport water and minerals Modified stem for storage of food Example: Potato

5 Plant Structure and Growth
C. Leaves – Functions: Main organ for photosynthesis Large surface area for maximum light absorption

6 Plant Structure and Growth
Structure of Leaf a.) Cuticle: waxy covering to prevent water loss b.) Epidermis: Outermost layer of cells; prevents injury, infection c.) Mesophyll: Photosynthetic layer of leaf 1. Palisade layer: upper portion of mesophyll with closely packed cells; site of most photosynthesis 2. Spongy layer: Underside of leaf; loosely – packed cells allow for gas exchange of CO2 and O2 d.) Vein: xylem and phloem e.) Stomata: Opening in underside of leaf that allows CO2 (carbon dioxide) to enter and O2 (oxygen) to exit f.) Guard cells: Control the size of stomata. Work to preserve balance between allowing for gas exchange without losing too much water. “Plant sweat” is known as transpiration.


8 Plant Structure and Growth
D. Plant Transport The 2 types of vascular tissue: 1. Xylem: transports water and minerals from the root to the rest of the plant 2. Phloem: transports “food” (glucose) from the leaves to

9 Plant Structure and Growth
E. Plant growth 1. Primary growth: Life long growth occurs at the tip of the stem and the end of the roots 2. Secondary Growth: Trees and some other plants have a second type that allows them to grow in width or girth.

10 Plant Structure and Growth
F. Seeds A seed consist of an embryo surrounded by a tough protective coat. Dicot Seed

11 Plant Classification Plants are classified into 2 basic groups based
on whether they contain vascular tissue.

12 Plant Classification A. Bryophytes – No vascular tissue present
mosses A. Bryophytes – No vascular tissue present Depends on water for reproduction No vascular system, therefore no taller than 20 cm Examples: mosses, hornworts, liverworts liverworts hornworts,

13 Plant Classification B. Tracheophytes – contain vascular tissue
Grow taller Live in drier climates The tracheophytes are further subdivided based on the presence or absence of pollen, seeds and fruit. 1. Pterophytes 2. Gymnosperms 3. Angiosperms Pterophytes Gymnosperms Angiosperms

14 Plant Classification 1. Pterophytes – commonly called ferns No pollen
No seeds No fruits Found predominantly in moist climates because the sperm must swim to the egg cell

15 Plant Classification 2. Gymnosperms – “naked seed” Have pollen
Have seeds not protected by fruit No fruit Cones present Example: Largest group is the conifers which includes pines, spruce, cedar Have common characteristic leaves called needles, which are modified to prevent water loss and minimize ice build – up Have “flying sperm” or pollen, so they are no longer tied to water for reproduction

16 Plant Classification 3. Angiosperms Most complex and adaptable
Most successful Have pollen Have seeds Have fruit Mature ovary Contains one or more seeds Provides embryo with protection Increases seed dispersal

17 Plant Classification Angiosperms cont. Have flowers
It enhances pollination Parts of the flower Stamen – male reproductive organ Anther – where pollen is produced, which contain the sperm cells Filament – holds up the anther Pistil – female reproductive organ Stigma – sticky to hold pollen Style – holds up the sigma Ovary – where the egg is produced and fertilized Petal – colorful and / or scented to attract pollenators

18 stigma { anther Stamen filament style Carpel petal ovule ovary

19 Class Monocots One cotyledon – seed leaf Parallel veins on leaves
Fibrous roots Flower parts in multiples of 3 Ex.: grasses, corn, lilies

20 Class Dicot Two cotyledon Branching veins on leaves Tap roots
Flowering parts in multiples of 4 or 5 Ex.: roses, oak trees, etc.

21 Monocots and Dicots

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