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From Republic to Empire

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Presentation on theme: "From Republic to Empire"— Presentation transcript:

1 From Republic to Empire
Chapter 5, Section 2 From Republic to Empire Big Idea: The internal instability of the Roman Empire eventually led to civil wars and increased power for the military.

2 *Factors leading to the end of the Roman Republic
Growing power of the elites Landless farmers changes in army recruitment Soldier loyalty to generals not the state Generals competing for power

3 The Roman Senate By 150 BC the Senate had become the governing body of Rome Senate mostly controlled by a small group of wealthy families

4 Roman Army Army recruitment changed from conscription (forced service) to a volunteer army. Soldiers were recruited from the poor and promised land for service Soldier loyalty was to their general, not to the government

5 General Sulla In 82 BC seized power in Rome He conducted a reign of terror to wipe out opposition. He then restored power to the Senate He wanted to restore a traditional Roman republic. In reality, he set an example of generals using their armies to gain power and control

6 The First Triumvirate From BC the Roman Republic experienced civil wars In 60 BC, Crassus - the richest man in Rome, Pompey – military hero, Julius Caesar – military hero formed the first triumvirate. Crassus was killed in battle in 53 BC. Leading Senators decided Pompey should rule alone. They ordered Caesar to lay down his command. Caesar refused, he kept his army and then crossed into Italy by crossing the Rubicon River.

7 Julius Caesar Caesar’s march on Rome sparked a civil war between his forces and the forces of Pompey Pompey’s defeat left Caesar in control Caesar was made dictator in 45 BC Caesar gave land to the poor and increased the Senate to 900 members In 44 BC Caesar was stabbed to death in the Senate by senators

8 The Second Triumvirate
A power struggle followed the death of Caesar Octavian – Caesar’s heir & grandnephew, Antony – Caesar’s ally and assistant and Lepidus, who had been commander of Caesar’s cavalry form the Second Triumvirate Octavian hunted down the politicians who had murdered his uncle In 36 BC Octavian accused Lepidus of attempting to usurp power in Sicily and he was forced into exile ending the Triumvirate

9 Beginning of the Roman Empire
In 27 BC the Senate awarded Octavian the title of Augustus – the revered one. Augustus Caesar was popular with the people, but his control of the army was the main source of his power. Augustus maintained a standing army of 28 legions or about 151,000 men, auxiliary forces of 130,000, and a praetorian guard of about 9,000 who guarded the emperor. In AD 14 Augustus died.

10 Early Roman Empire – emperors gained power & the Senate lost power
Early Roman Empire – emperors gained power & the Senate lost power. Some of the emperors were very corrupt. Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero – had people killed including his own mother. His legions turned against him and he committed suicide in AD 69. Then civil war broke out.

11 Roman Empire in the 2nd Century
Five “good” emperors: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. Pax Romana – the Roman Peace – lasted for almost 200 years (27 BC – AD 180).

12 *Pax Romana Absolute rulers known for their tolerance
Treated the ruling classes with respect. Ended arbitrary executions Maintained peace in the empire Building projects: aqueducts, bridges, roads and harbor facilities in Rome and the provinces (infrastructure – transportation & communication systems)

13 Expansion of the Empire
The empire covered three and a half million square miles (3.5 million sq. miles) Included modern day England, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Syria, Israel, Jordan, Egypt, parts of Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco The population has been estimated at more than 50 million people. Roman cities contained temples, markets, baths, public buildings and law courts.

14 Roman Cultural Diffusion
Roman trade routes went beyond the borders of the empire and spread Roman culture beyond the empire. Latin was the language of the western part of the empire, while Greek was used in the east as a result of Alexander the Great’s earlier conquests. Roman culture mixed with Greek culture to form the Greco-Roman civilization.

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