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Chapter 17 Notes #1-15 Enlightenment and Revolution.

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1 Chapter 17 Notes #1-15 Enlightenment and Revolution

2 1. What was the Enlightenment? A time when the use of reason guided people’s thoughts about philosophy, society, and politics.

3 2. How did the Enlightenment both build on and conflict with Christianity? Used ideas of Christian thinkers, such as Thomas Aquinas Basically a secular, non religious, movement

4 3. Who was Voltaire? Mocked gov’t and religion Wrote Candide Freedom of speech Separation of Church and State

5 4. How did Enlightenment thinkers spread ideas? Met at salons Published ideas in books, pamphlets, and newspapers

6 5. What three Enlightenment thinkers contributed to the creation of modern democracy? Locke Montesquieu Rousseau

7 6. Who was John Locke? Wrote Two Treaties on Government Gov’t power is limited Natural Rights ▫Life ▫Liberty ▫Property

8 7. Who was Montesquieu? Wrote The Spirit of the Laws Separation of Powers ▫Separate branches of gov’t share power

9 8. Who was Rousseau? Criticized divine right Popular Soveriegnty ▫Gov’t serves the people Wrote The Social Contract

10 9. What two colonial leaders in North America used Enlightenment ideas to change their society? Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson

11 10. What was the English Bill of Rights? Listed rights of Parliament and the English people Influenced by Magna Carta ▫Limited king’s power

12 11. Who wrote the Declaration of Independence? Thomas Jefferson

13 12. Under the U.S. Constitution, how is power separated into three branches? Legislative ▫(Congress) ▫Makes Laws Executive ▫(President) ▫Enforces Laws Judicial ▫(Courts) ▫Interprets Laws

14 13. What were the three groups in French society? First Estate ▫Clergy Second Estate ▫Nobles Third Estate ▫Peasants ▫Craftworkers ▫Shopkeepers

15 14. In France, the Third Estate formed the National Assembly and wrote what? The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

16 15. What was the Reign of Terror in France? Robespierre executed thousands of people who questioned the government with the guillotine

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