China is 9.6 million square kilometers It makes up 6.5% of the worlds land China has two major rivers: Haung He and the Chang Jiang Otherwise known as Yellow River and Yangtze River Haung He Chang Jiang
The Yellow River is 2,900 miles long It was named after the rich yellow soil that it carries along the valley Once the Yellow River flooded greatly. Good things and bad things happened because of it. The flood ruined homes and killed many people, but afterwards gave rich soil.
The Yangtze River is longer than the Yellow River It stretches 3,400 miles. The Yangtze River, like the Yellow River, has rich soil. The Chinese could grow a lot of food because they had such good soil.
Only one-tenth of China can be farmed China is mainly mountains and deserts Chinas borders are made up of mountains Himalaya mountains go along the southwest side of the border The mountains on China’s western border is Kunlun Shan and Tian Shan mountains Gobi, northern China, is north of the Yellow River and is a huge rocky desert
The mountains and deserts isolated the Chinese people from others They created their own civilization called “The Middle Kingdom” They thought the Middle Kingdom was the center of the world and they were superior
China used to depend on the rain to keep there crops alive. The Chinese finally invented a flood control system and an irrigation system. This helped the Chinese grow more crops China started using iron plows in 550 B.C. that broke up the land Because China had a lot of crops the population increased China reached about 50 million people plow
The Shang Kings ruled the early Chinese people in Anyang Shang Dynast was divided into groups Kings warlords and other royal officials traders and artisans Farmers and peasants -Ruled over small area in Northern China -Governed kingdom’s territories -Warlords: military leaders -Small group of people -Worked land belonging to aristocrats
Worshiped gods and spirits Believed spirits were in rivers, mountains, and seas Believed spirits would be angry and punish them if not treated well Honored ancestors/ departed family members Burned cloth and other items that represented their ancestors to try to help them in the after life Kings asked for the god’s help by scratching their request on oracle bones Priests interpreted answers
Language began by the scratching on oracle bones Modern language is very complex Writing uses pictographs and ideographs pictograph ideograph Some characteristics stand for sounds but most stand for whole words
Best known for works of bronze Steps to making bronze: 1.Mold clay in several sections 2.Carve details into clay 3.Fit pieces of the mold tightly together and pour into melted bronze 4.After bronze cools, artwork is removed
The Zhou Dynasty When Shang ruled rich and poor didn’t get along. Shang kings were rich and treated people badly. The cruelty of the Kings caused the people in the kingdom to stop supporting them. An aristocrat named Wu Wang rebelled against the Shang and defeated them. After he defeated the Shang, he started the Zhou dynasty.
The Zhou Government Zhou dynasty ruled longer than any other dynasty. Zhou Kings ruled like the Shang rulers. 1.Zhou king was in charge of government 2.Head of a bureaucracy 3.Zhou king was in charge of defending the kingdom.
Zhou Government Like Shang rulers, Zhou kings divided the kingdom into smaller territories. Kings put aristocrats they trusted in charge of each territory. The positions the aristocrats had were hereditary.
Mandate of Heaven Zhou rulers believed a heavenly law gave the Zhou king a power to rule. This formal order was called the Mandate of Heaven. Based on the mandate the king : 1.Chosen by heavenly order 2.Had to have talent and virtue 3.Would rule the people with goodness and wisdom.
Mandate of Heaven The Mandate of Heaven worked in two ways: 1.People expected the king to rule according to the proper “Way” called the Dao. 2.It gave people, as well as the king, important rights.
The Zhou Empire Falls Local rulers of the territories became powerful, stopped obeying the king and set up their own states. Soon fighting broke out and for 200 years the states battled each other. Period of Warring States Chinese invented saddle and stirrup Ruler of Qin used cavalry force, defeated other states, and set up new dynasty.
Quiz Questions What two rivers are China’s two major rivers? A.The Nile and the Mississippi river B.Yellow River and Yangtze River C.The Blue River and The Green River D.Wu River and Hong Kong River
Quiz Questions The Shang believed spirits were found in A. mountains B. rivers C. valleys D. all of the above The Shang were known for their works of silver. True or False
Quiz Questions What was a formal order that gave Kings the power to rule? A.dynasty B.pictograph C. mandate D. aristocrat