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Early America’s Mayan’s, Aztec’s, and Inca’s

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Presentation on theme: "Early America’s Mayan’s, Aztec’s, and Inca’s"— Presentation transcript:

1 Early America’s Mayan’s, Aztec’s, and Inca’s
Astronomy Mayan Calendar

2 Mayan Political & Economic Structure
Availability of resources led to trade between villages in the Yucatan Peninsula (ECONOMIC) Trade led to wealth, sharing of resources & exchange of ideas (ECONOMIC) Group of city-states each with its own king who claimed to be from the sun god (POLITICAL) Center of city-state was a ceremonial center including temples, palaces, rulers/nobles, ball courts & markets (POLITICAL) Small villages surrounded the ceremonial center (POLITICAL) Kings expected people to serve him (POLITICAL) Royal women married into royal families from other city states (INCREASED TRADE AND ALLIANCES FORMED) (POLITICAL)

3 Mayan Civilization Achievements: Social Structure: Ruler & Family
Nobles & Priests Craftsman, merchants, traders Farmers, hunters Slaves Religion: Polytheistic Temple structure for human sacrifices-games where losers were sacrificed, POWs also sacrificed Achievements: Architecture Astronomy Calendar Paper Mathematics Temples

4 Mayan Decline Over-farming created a drop in food production
Several Theories Over-farming created a drop in food production Attack from enemies Fighting among city-states Rebellion of peasants that overthrew king and priests Drought

5 Aztec Political & Economic Structure
Developed: On an island in Lake Texcoco Aztecs conquered neighboring city-states to gain control of resources Political Structure: Empire ruled by an emperor (who was believed to have descended from the gods) Council of priests, nobles & warriors City-states were ruled by local leaders who answered to the Emperor City-states paid tributes to the Emperor Economics: Agricultural Development of specialized labor Trade grows as artisans & craftsman sell goods Wealth from trade & tributes paid by conquered peoples supported by the empire

6 Aztec Civilization Social Structure: Religion: Achievements: Emperor
Nobles, warriors, & Priests Commoners-craftsmen, merchants, traders, farmers Unskilled Workers-farm laborers Slaves Religion: Polytheistic Temples Human sacrifices (believed this was necessary to prevent gods from destroying the world) Achievements: Chinampas Architecture Jewelry Writing Calendar Arrows & the use of poison

7 Decline of the Aztec Civilization
Small pox weakened the empire Technology in warfare gave the Spanish the upper hand Tribute states joined forces with Spanish explorers by Cortes to overthrow the Aztec emperor

8 Incan Civilization Political & Economic Structure
Developed: Began in Cuzco, high in the Andes Mountains Pachacuti expanded the Empire Political Structure: Emperor (descendent from sun god) Land was divided into 4 provinces Tributes were paid in the form of labor tax Lands were conquered and divided then distributed (Emperor, people, & sun god) Captured people were made to learn & use the official language (Quechua) Children of local leaders were educated in Cuzco and then returned to their villages

9 Incan Civilization Political & Economic Structure Cont’d
People grew & created what they needed. Extra was collected by the government & stored in case of disaster Storehouses were along the highways Everyone worked for the government & their own family Labor tax-Everyone worked for the government a few weeks each year No trade (because government collected & redistributed it) Command economy- no money, no credit-only small amounts of local bartering  

10 Incan Civilization Social Structure: Religion: Achievements: Emperor
Head Priest & Head of Army Regional Army leaders Temple priests, local army leaders, & skilled workers Farmers, herders, soldiers Slaves Religion: Polytheistic Mummification Sacrifices-llamas, cloth, food, occasionally people Achievements: Roads Temples Suspension bridges Quipu (a type of calculation-never invented a writing system) Jewelry Calendar Terrace Farming Medicine Domestication/use of llamas

11 Decline of the Incas Spanish explorers came to conquer lands
Interaction between Atahualpa & Pizzaro Incan swords were no match for Spanish guns

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