Presentation on theme: "The Digestive System The Functions of the Digestive System 1.Ingestion: when food enters the mouth 2.Digestion: when food is broken down 3.Absorption:"— Presentation transcript:
The Digestive System The Functions of the Digestive System 1.Ingestion: when food enters the mouth 2.Digestion: when food is broken down 3.Absorption: when the body absorbs nutrients from food 4.Elimination: when the body gets rid of wastes
Digestion The process that breaks down food into small molecules so that they can be absorbed and moved into the blood. –Mechanical digestion: when food is chewed, mixed and churned. –Chemical digestion: when chemicals break down large molecules of food into smaller ones.
Enzymes Types of proteins that speed up the rate of a chemical reaction in your body –Amylase: made in the mouth. Breaks complex carbohydrates into simple sugars. –Pepsin: made in the stomach Breaks proteins down into amino acids. –Pancreas: organ located behind the stomach Releases several enzymes into the small intestine to continue the break down of foods. –Additional enzymes aid other important chemical reactions which are essential for numerous body functions.
Parts of the Digestive System Digestive Tract 1.Mouth 2.Esophagus 3.Stomach 4.Small intestine 5.Large intestine 6.Rectum 7.Anus Accessory Organs 1.Tongue 2.Teeth 3.Salivary glands 4.Liver 5.Gallbladder 6.Pancreas
Functions of the Digestive Organs Body PartFunctionExtra Info Mouth Mechanical & Chemical digestion begins hereContains saliva glands Esophagus Muscular food that food passes though to stomach Keeps food moist (25 cm long) Peristalsis: waves of smooth muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract Stomach Muscular bag where mechanical and chemical digestion take place Hydrochloric acid helps break down food and kill bad bacteria Chyme: a thin, watery liquid that food is changed into after it has moved through the stomach Small Intestine Most digestion takes place in the duodenum, the first section of the small intestine Fats are broken down and stomach acids are neutralized Absorption of food into the body happens here Peristalsis also continues here Villi: Fingerlike projections that increase the surface area of the small intestine so nutrients have more places to be absorbed Large Intestine Absorbs water from undigested stuff Helps with Homeostasis Chyme can stay in here for as long as three days Rectum & Anus Control the release of semisolid wastes from the body as feces
Functions of accessory organs Body PartFunction Tongue Moves food around and mixes it with saliva Teeth Crush food into smaller pieces. Responsible for mechanical digestion in the mouth Salivary Glands Supply saliva, which is a mix of water, mucus and an enzyme that breaks down starches into sugar. There are three sets of salivary glands near the mouth Liver Produces bile, which breaks down large fat particles much like detergents break up grease Gallbladder Stores bile and increases its potency before it released into the duodenum Pancreas Produces enzymes and a digestive solution that contains bicarbonate ions, which neutralize stomach acid. Also produces insulin which allows glucose to diffuse into the body’s cells
Bacteria are Important! Live in the organs of the digestive tract Feed on undigested materials and make vitamins like K (assists in clotting) Converts bile pigments into new compounds Breakdown on intestinal materials produces gas