Presentation on theme: "5 L. Coleman 2009. The scientific process: an organized way to solve problems and find answers to questions about the natural world. PURPOSE: Benefit."— Presentation transcript:
The scientific process: an organized way to solve problems and find answers to questions about the natural world. PURPOSE: Benefit society.
Do the test (EXPERIMENT or make observations In the field) Form a HYPOTHESIS : predict the answer to the question Ask a QUESTION Study, observe, learn all you can. ( must be testable) Design a way to test hypothesis. a. Use a control b. Make careful record of data Study & analyze data Form a CONCLUSION : Is hypoth. supported - yes, no, partially? “NO” or “partially”? Revise one or both: “YES”? Share what you learned - PUBLISH Often raises new questions Practical problem, curiosity, new technology or observation leads someone to… 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
The Scientific Process starts with developing a… 1. Problem/Question 1. Problem/Question: … that can be solved through experimentation or observation. [How, What, When, Who, Which, Why, or Where?] Example: Why, after rebounding for a few years, is the population of California sea otters declining again?
Before proceeding to the next step, make observations and research your topic of interest.
Formulate a Hypothesis 2. Formulate a Hypothesis: Predict a possible answer to the problem or question. Must be testable by experiment or observation. Example: Sea otters are dying from a cat parasite accumulating in the ocean as a result of runoff polluted by cat feces.
3. Do an experiment or make observations in nature to test your hypothesis. Carefully record your observations (data). If testing with an experiment, be sure you use a control*. * A control is the group (or item) that serves as the standard of comparison. A control is the same as the experimental group(s) in every way except that the control receives “no treatment”. Testing with an experiment. Testing by observation.
organize and analyze results Before going to the next step, organize and analyze results: (Often includes graphing and/or mathematical analysis of data) a. Is there a pattern (or patterns) in the data? If yes, what does it tell you about the purpose? b.Is there evidence that you may have made errors? If so, study procedure to see where errors might have occurred. Label axes - include units! TITLE graphs Pressure change with temperature increase in a gas
4. Form a Conclusion 4. Form a Conclusion: a.Summarize results. b.Describe patterns you identified. c.Hypothesize possible explanation(s) of patterns. d.Can you answer purpose based on your results? If so, do it! If not, say so and tell why. Support your statement with evidence from data. e.Do results support your hypothesis? If not, identify possible reason: –Hypothesis wrong? –Error(s)? “By golly, I was right!” f. Discuss any new questions that your work raises about the topic.
5. PUBLISH! Share what you’ve learned so others can: - study your experiment - repeat it - pursue questions you raised. - and society can benefit from your work. In this class, you share by writing a lab report!
The body of knowledge of science comes from many sources: Experimental and observational EVIDENCE. (obtained through the scientific process). FACTS: directly observable phenomena agreed upon by all. (Example: “ people come in different heights”). LAWS: Statements of fundamental relationships that always hold true under specific conditions. (Example: the Law of Gravity).
FACT LAW Observational evidence Experimental evidence Experimental evidence Experimental evidence Experimental evidence Experimental evidence HYPOTHESIS: 1. Evidence about a topic from all sources accumulates. 3. Rarely, someone develops a THEORY: something that explains and is consistent with every fact, law and bit of evidence on the topic. THEORY 2. Scientists propose and test HYPOTHESES (possible explanations) to make sense of parts of it.
In everyday usage a“theory” is a guess. In science it means just the opposite.THEORIES ARE WHAT SCIENTISTS ARE MOST SURE ABOUT! 1.Supported by HUGE bodies of evidence. 2. If contradictory evidence arises, theory must be changed to include it. 3. Accurately predict future findings and results. Three theories organize our understanding of living things: 1. CELL THEORY 2. The “CENTRAL DOGMA” (How DNA Controls an Organism.) 3. THEORY OF EVOLUTION by NATURAL SELECTION.