Apartheid in South Africa “Apartness” Segregated population into four groups: White, Black, Colored, and Asian Laws especially harsh on black South Africans, for example: – Required to carry ID books – Couldn’t vote – Restricted to low paying jobs
Protesting South Africa’s Apartheid Early 1900s, African National Congress formed to peacefully protest apartheid 1940s, younger, more radical members joined, including a young lawyer – Nelson Mandela 1952, Mandela organized a campaign that urged blacks to break apartheid laws
Protesting South Africa’s Apartheid 1960, ANC changed its peaceful policy after police killed more than 60 demonstrators in the Sharpeville Massacre and more than 600 in the Soweto Uprising ANC members decided that they had to meet violence with violence. In response, the government banned ANC & jailed Mandela
Protesting South Africa’s Apartheid 1990, under President F.W. de Klerk, South Africa created new constitution that ended apartheid, granted universal suffrage, and released Mandela Democratic elections were held & Mandela was elected the first black president of democratic South Africa
Military Dictatorships Almost all of the newly independent African nations adopted a one-party system – a single political party controls the government – Maintains power through fear, intimidation, and patronage
Ethnic Conflicts & Civil War After independence, rival ethnic groups competed for control and led to civil wars – 1967, Nigeria: 2 million Nigerians died from fighting & 2 million died from starvation. – 1992, Somalia: hundreds of thousands of Somalis died when rival militia stole food sent by the US & UN. – 1994, Rwanda: the Hutu-led government encouraged genocide of Tutsi. 1 million died.
Democracy for Some Dictatorships stopped receiving money from U.S. & USSR – Cold War over! Early 1990s, many countries moved towards democracy However, most struggled to hold free & fair elections, maintain stability
Economic and Environmental Challenges Struggling Economies – Lack of infrastructure; dependent on one or two exports Disease – Malaria; HIV/AIDS Desertification – Contributes to cycles of drought and famine