Africa Before European Domination Mid 1800s – African peoples divided into hundreds of ethnic & linguistic groups Most followed traditional beliefs, some converted to Islam or Christianity African armies had kept Europeans out of most of Africa for 400 years By 1880 – Europe controlled only 10% of Africa Disease, difficult rivers, specialized African trade networks = discouraged European Exploration
The Congo Sparks InterestThe Congo Sparks Interest 1860s – David Livingstone traveled to central Africa to spread Christianity 1871 – Henry Stanley sent to find Livingstone – found him living on the shores of Lake Tanganyika. 1879 – 1882 – Stanley signed treaties with local chiefs of the Congo river for King Leopold II of Belgium Soon, Britain, Germany, Italy, Portugal, & Spain claimed parts of Africa 1880 – 1914 = Age of Imperialism
Causes for Imperialist Expansion Economic European countries needed raw materials (IR) Wanted places to sell new goods Gold, Diamonds, Copper, Tin Political Nationalism – Nations were proud to have colonies – build empires Europeans learned to play rival groups against each other
Causes for Imperialist Expansion Social Missionaries wanted to spread Christianity Racism – Belief that the white race was superior Social Darwinism – nations that were fittest for survival enjoyed wealth & success, were superior to other nations
The Partition of AfricaThe Partition of Africa European nations began to compete for control of African nations 1884-85 – Berlin Conference – 14 European Nations met to lay down rules for the division of Africa 1 st – Nation must tell other countries about its colony 2 nd – Move people to the colony By 1914 – only 2 countries remained independent
Cecil RhodesCecil Rhodes “I contend that we [Britons] are the first race in the world, and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race…It is our duty to seize every opportunity of acquiring more territory and we should keep this one idea steadily before our eyes that more territory simply means more of the Anglo-Saxon race, more of the best, the most human, most honourable race the world possesses.
Imperialism in IndiaImperialism in India 1600s British Economic Interest Begins 1757 – East India Company defeats Indian forces – becomes leading power in India IR – India becomes major supplier of raw materials for Britain “Jewel in the crown”
Imperialism in IndiaImperialism in India 1800s Britain establishes railroad network in India Negative – British held political & economic power Restrictions led to famines, problems in traditions Indian life Positive – World’s 3 rd largest railroad network India developed modern economy, brought unity to connected regions Sanitation/Public health improved, etc.
Imperialism in IndiaImperialism in India 1857 – Sepoys (Indian soldiers) rebel Uprising spread throughout India Indians could not unite – splits between Hindus & Muslims 1858 – Mutiny failed. British government took direct command of India Fueled racism
Imperialism in IndiaImperialism in India Nationalist feelings start to surface. 1885 – Indian National Congress 1906 – Muslim League Conflict between India & Britain continued to develop. Some Indians call for Independence from Britain.