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Emotional Intelligence Lecture Slides

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1 Emotional Intelligence Lecture Slides
A series of lecture slides with notes are provided below in Office PowerPoint 2007 format. The slides provide a general introduction to Emotional Intelligence suitable for use within any subject area. The slides can stand alone as a lecture or can be set within a wider context of EI within PDP provision using additional materials from elsewhere in the website (workshops, assessment etc.). Basic slides are provided which can be adapted to suit the needs of the individual facilitator, department and/or institution. Notes are provided with each slide to provide additional information for teaching purposes. More detailed information on the concepts of EI with relevant literature and assessment information are provided elsewhere within the website. It is intended that the full set of slides provide sufficient material for a one hour teaching session. Notes indicate where slides can be removed to provide a shorter (half an hour) session. Further slides can be removed as necessary to customize for individual needs.

2 Emotional Intelligence (EI)
Insert Facilitator Name and Institution This session is helping us to look at the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI). EI is an ‘umbrella’ term, encompassing aspects of previously investigated constructs (psychological and sociological), such as cognitive and personality trait theory. In recent years, consideration of EI as a discrete entity has indicated that higher EI ratings significantly predict positive life outcomes and that EI competencies can be developed with the potential, therefore, to improve future life outcomes. Research has shown that aspects of EI are related to improved academic progress and achievement and it is therefore of interest to educators in Higher Education, particularly as EI competencies can be developed.

3 “Anyone can become angry … that is easy
“Anyone can become angry … that is easy. …But to be angry with the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose, and in the right way … that is not easy.” (Aristotle) Read the quote above. It has always been recognized that control of emotions is important within social relationships at all levels (at work and at home). Control of emotions is developed from early childhood when we move from a more impulsive to a more considered and controlled state within which we are able to select and monitor our internal emotions to provide measured and appropriate responses within different social situations. Obviously there are differences as to what is considered an appropriate response dependent on culture and time period. There are also individual differences due to personality and temperament.

4 Overview What is emotional intelligence (EI)? Why is EI important?
Why bother to develop EI skills? How can I develop EI skills? Overview of session. This overview of session can be adapted for individual department or institutional use within the context of specific subject areas.

5 What is Emotional Intelligence?
“The capacity for recognising our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships.” (Goleman, 1995) Different definitions of EI exist and can be found within the psychological literature. One widely used definition above is derived from the work of Goleman (1995). EI is the ability to understand your own emotions and those of people around you. The concept of EI means you have a self-awareness that enables you to recognise feelings and helps you manage your emotions. A person with a high EI is also capable of understanding the feelings of others and, therefore, is better at handling relationships of all kinds. If a person is 'intellectually' intelligent, it does not necessarily follow they are emotionally intelligent. Having a good memory, or good problem-solving abilities, does not mean a person is capable of dealing with emotions or of motivating themselves.

6 What is Emotional Intelligence?
the ability to perceive emotions the ability to access and generate emotions so as it assist thought the ability to understand complex emotions and emotional knowledge the ability to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth EI is viewed in two separate ways. Trait EI reports on one’s beliefs about EI skills. Trait EI is measured using personality-type self-report measures which provides us with information about how people THINK they are at EI skills. Ability EI views EI as a global ability, which joins together specific and individual abilities and is measured using traditional general ability-type measures, similar to IQ tests. An individual’s responses are compared to those provided by an expert in the field – so there are right and wrong answers. The abilities involved in EI include the ability: to perceive emotions (so, the ability to recognise how you and those around you are feeling) to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought (this will include also the ability to reason with the emotion that is generated) to understand complex emotions and emotional knowledge (this includes the ability to understand emotional ‘chains’ , so how emotions move from one stage to another) to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth (here we are talking about the ability to manage emotions in yourself and in others).

7 Emotional Understanding 1
Which of the following faces is expressing happiness, surprise, anger, sadness? Answer: A. Anger B. Surprise C. Sadness D. Happiness Most people will get this task correct without too much trouble. It is useful to ask their strategy as they will usually identify easier emotions first (happiness and sadness) and then the others by process of elimination. This task can facilitate a discussion around what makes up each emotional expression (mouth, eyebrows, widening of eyes, angle of mouth etc.). It is hard to express genuine emotion unless actually feeling the emotion. A B C D

8 Emotional Understanding 2
Divide into groups of 5. Choose one person to express the facial emotion provided on the list You must sit very still and silent and not move anything except your facial muscles. How many emotions can you correctly identify (out of 20) in 5 minutes? This task can be omitted in ½ hour version of lecture Facial Expressions: 1. Angry Guilty Worry Disgust Bored  Frustrated Confused Happy Jealous Sad Mean Rage Content Scared Shy Sorry Suspicious Surprise Tired Anxious These expressions can be provided as a list to one person (who will act out the expressions) in each group – it is also an activity that can be conducted in pairs or adapted to suit the space, number of students and time available. In the shorter versions of this lecture it can be omitted. The task can facilitate a discussion of other factors that ‘come into play’ when communicating emotions, such as sound and hand gestures. It is also useful to consider that some people are better at conveying emotions and at picking up emotion in others. If there is a mismatch on either side, then signals can be misinterpreted and lead to a breakdown in communication (may be useful to consider that autistic spectrum disorders have particular problems in this area).

9 Emotion Regulation 1 You and your partner have got into an argument that has escalated into a shouting match; you’re both upset and, in the heat of the anger, making personal attacks you don’t really mean. What’s the best thing to do? Take a 20 minute break and then continue the discussion Just stop the argument – go silent, no matter what your partner says Say you’re sorry and ask your partner to apologise too Stop for a moment, collect your thoughts, then state your case as precisely as you can a. is the correct answer because it gives us times to think about the situation. BUT more than that it gives our physiological system time to calm down after arousal. According to the experts, we undergo emotional highjack initially to the point we cannot think through things clearly – it takes our bodies about 20 minutes to reset itself after such emotional highjack. An understanding of this process can enable us to address the situation, and, although it may not prevent emotional highjack per se, it can help us to deal with the effects more effectively.

10 Emotion Regulation 2 How do you regulate your emotional reactions?
This task can be omitted in ½ hour version of lecture The previous task can now facilitate a discussion of individual reactions. Ask students to consider two common situations; receiving coursework back and driving. Ask students to consider their feelings when first receiving back a piece of coursework (physiological reactions – heart rate, sweating etc). Do they often, in retrospect, overreact (get upset, angry, blame the tutors, etc, etc.) but then, on reflection, consider feedback etc. – consider emotional hijack as mentioned on previous slide. If time, can also consider driving experiences – emotional hijack can be very dangerous!

11 Four Basic Components of EI
Self - awareness Social awareness Self - management Relationship management Looking now in more detail about EI and using a Four-Branch Model of EI (Boyatzis & Goleman, 2005), EI comprises four clusters of competencies that work together: our self-awareness underpins our self-management and social awareness, which in turn underpin our capabilities in relationship management – our positive impact on others. Therefore, each of the EI competencies is important. The competencies in the self-awareness cluster are particularly important as the foundation for developing and sustaining EI in the long-term. Examples of competencies that may fall within each cluster: Self-awareness: self-confidence, accurate self-assessment, emotional self-awareness Social awareness: empathy, responsiveness to others, organizational awareness Self-management: adaptability, emotional self-control, positive outlook, initiative Relationship management: conflict management, inspirational leadership, influence, teamwork

12 What Does High or Low EI Look Like?
'I feel...' Open expression of emotions Not preoccupied with negative emotions Can identity the feelings of others Emotionally resilient Decisions based on feelings and logic Accepts self and others Good listener Talks about problems 'You always make me feel....' Cannot share feelings verbally Negative feelings dominate Not perceptive to others' feelings Carries grudges, unforgiving Acts without reasoning or logic Not accepting of self or others Poor listener 'Hits out' when there is a problem So what does an individual who has a high or low score for EI look like? No one individual falls totally into one group or another – we are all on a continuum of ability. However, it is interesting to consider the points above in order to assess one’s own general EI. Note: Emotionally resilient – able to rebound, recover after a knock back. 'Hits out' – unable to self-regulate or wait for a more appropriate time to show others how they feel. So, unable to delay response.

13 EI and Other Psychological Constructs
Is EI just a repackaging of other concepts? Emotion regulation Social cognition Personality An umbrella term that encompasses lots of areas of emotional knowledge and control that we have lots of empirical data to support. This slide can be omitted in ½ hour version of lecture This slide can be used if a deeper understanding of EI is required. For example, when delivering to psychology of sociology students who will already have some understanding of similar concepts and might question the validity of EI as a separate construct. Omit this slide as necessary or appropriate for audience. There are many similarities between previously investigated constructs, such as emotional development and social cognition, and current notions of what constitutes components of ability EI in particular. For example, the construct of emotion regulation has been the focus of decades of research and shares a likeness to the EI construct. Whilst definitions of emotion regulation have varied, Thompson (1994) defines the construct as “…the extrinsic and intrinsic processes responsible for monitoring, evaluating, and modifying emotional reactions, especially their intensive and temporal features, to accomplish one's goals…” (p. 27). In particular, the higher level EI skills (reflective regulation of emotion) delineated in Mayer and Salovey’s (1997) ability EI model are consistent with some components of Thompson’s definition. Thus there are those who argue that the EI construct is not unprecedented. Further, the ability EI construct encompasses many ideas that can also be found in the social cognition literature. For example, within Crick and Dodge’s (1994) model of social information processing, the person must understand emotional and social behaviours and have a detailed understanding of which behaviours they should use in certain situations (based on their appraisal of others' emotional responses) and this is in keeping with the ideas of both trait and ability EI. Thus, several key features of traditional social cognitive theory are components of the models of EI. In addition, there are other features of ability EI that can be found in psychological literature under other headings, including emotional understanding, expression and empathy. Some of these are also found in trait EI theory. Thus, we argue that trait EI, and ability EI in particular, should be seen as umbrella terms, encompassing many previously investigated and empirically supported psychological constructs. It is also important to note at this point that there are problems surrounding personality and trait EI. For example, Davies, Stankov and Roberts (1998) claim that trait EI overlaps considerably with established personality trait taxonomies such as the Big Five and argued, using empirical data, that trait EI was “repackaged” personality trait theory, lacking in discriminant and incremental validity. Similarly, in reviewing some of the literature on trait measures of EI, Bowman, Markham and Roberts (2001) conclude that “…EI is simply an old wine (personality) dressed up in a new bottle (EI)” (p. 141) questioning the utility of EI in predicting important life outcomes and behaviours. However, as Roberts et al., (2001) point out, the study by Davies et al., (1998) used EI instruments that were very much in their infancy with regard to the investigation of psychometric properties, and thus conclusions based on these measures must be viewed with caution. Since the publication of Davies et al.’s study, researchers have made concerted efforts to address the issue of overlap between EI and personality, by examining the discriminant and incremental validity of the former. However, there appears little consistency in the findings, with results varying as a function of the trait EI measure used. For example, Saklofske, Austin and Minski (2003) reviewed three studies (Dawda & Hart, 2000; Petrides & Furnham, 2001; Schutte et al., 1998) and concluded that trait EI measures usually correlate largely and significantly with Extraversion (E) and Neuroticism (N) [correlations with E are positive and correlations with N are negative], while Openness (O), Agreeableness (A) and Conscientiousness (C) all show smaller significant positive correlations. However, on close examination of the three studies Saklofske et al., (2003) reviewed, it is still apparent that there is little consistency in the findings, possibly due to the use of different self-report measures to assess trait EI. However, if the use of different self-report instruments was the sole reason for such inconsistency, one would expect similar correlations between EI and personality in any study using the same self-report EI instrument, yet this is not the case (e.g., Dawda & Hart, 2000; Petrides and Furnham, 2001). More recent research (Austin, Saklofske & Egan, 2005; Brackett & Mayer, 2003; Gannon & Ranzjin, 2005; Warwick & Nettlebeck, 2004) has also produced inconsistent findings, with the significance and magnitude of correlations varying considerably. Thus, the debate concerning whether trait EI is a repackaged personality trait is ongoing.

14 So Why is EI Important? High EI individuals compared to those low on EI are: Less aggressive More empathic Happier Have fewer unauthorised absences and exclusions from school Less depressed Less stressed Higher self-esteem Less lonely Better quality friendships and sexual relationships Okay, so now we know what EI is all about, why is knowing about it so important? Empirical research has shown that high EI compared to low EI individuals are all the list above – i.e. have better life outcomes. The research for trait and ability EI is quite consistent. So it would be desirable to increase EI if possible

15 Education and High EI Cope better at transition periods
Lower drop out from school and university Higher academic qualifications Better career prospects When looking specifically at EI and education. Literature to support these statements are provided in other areas on the website. These slides provide a basic overview of EI. Further detail is available within the website if required.

16 But Can We Change EI? Yes, as the construct encompasses constructs such as emotion regulation and social cognition which we know from the literature are changeable. EI interventions are successful with high school students and those in HE. Okay, EI is important, but can we change it? Given that both trait and ability EI have been linked to life success, it is critical for educators to know whether EI can be changed and how it might develop as it will undoubtedly fall to them to introduce its education into the curriculum. There is currently little research addressing the developmental determinants of EI specifically, although there is a plethora of research (e.g., Fox, 1994) pertaining to the emotional development of children. Also, there have been recent discussions amongst those in the EI field about how EI develops (e.g., Arsenio, 2003; Fox, 2003; Matthews et al., 2002, 2003; Zeidner, Roberts & Matthews, 2002). BUT, given that EI includes constructs such as emotion regulation and social cognition, which we know arte changeable through intervention, it is likely that EI is. There are also specific EI based interventions that develop all aspects of EI. EI interventions have been found to be successful at improving GPA, self-worth and lateness to class in a high school sample, and reduce drop –out amongst university students. Also, work in Teesside suggests that EI training opens up job opportunities.

17 (Association of Graduate Recruiters, 1995)
In the 21st century the most significant challenge for graduates will be to manage their relationship with work and with learning. This requires skills such as negotiation, action-planning and networking, added to qualities like self-awareness and confidence. These are the skills required to be self-reliant in career and personal development, skills to manage processes rather than functional skills.” (Association of Graduate Recruiters, 1995) Our graduates are being judged by a new yardstick (Dudiak & Anderson, 2006) EI training at university can give our graduates the edge! (Dacre-Poole & Sewell, 2007) Research from two teams (Dudiak and Anderson, 2006: Teesside; and Dacre-Pool and Sewell, 2007) in interviews with employers found that our graduates are being judged by a new yardstick: This is what Dudiak and Anderson (2006) note in their study: ‘It is not just how smart we are, Or by our training and expertise, But also how well we handle ourselves and each other’. This suggests that EI training during university can help students develop further their EI skills and as Dacre-Pool and Sewell note it could ‘give you the edge’ Contribute to the development of your CV And through such interventions, not only do students develop these skills, but they can say this on their CV. The quote by Dacre-Pool and Sewell that EI skills ‘give students the edge’ suggests why EI development is important and reinforces what employers had reported in the study by Dudiak and Anderson.

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