Presentation on theme: "An Enquiry-Based Approach"— Presentation transcript:
1 An Enquiry-Based Approach Learning JournalsandReflective Thinking:An Enquiry-Based ApproachAberdeen University7th July 2006
2 Buckingham Building Lion Terrace, Dr George AllanBSc MA(Ed) PhD FBCS FNZCS CEng CITP MIMIS MILT MIEEEUniversity of PortsmouthSchool of ComputingBuckingham Building Lion Terrace,Portsmouth PO1 3HE+44(0)
3 Workshop Overview learning journals – their purpose thinking ―› reflectioncognitive development modelsenquiry-based paradigmreflection ―› critical reflection ―› reflexionstrategies for engaging students
4 Learning JournalA learning journal - collection of reflective writingsReflective writing – manifestation of reflective thinkingWhat is reflective thinking?
5 Learning Journal Find and record information + Thinking Writing = Better thinking
7 Thinking 1 Recall descriptive What purpose does this serve? How deeply does this engage the brain?
8 Thinking 2 Descriptive Recall + some cognitive skills = Reflection AnalysisExplanationInterpretationDescription + these cognitive skills = Reflection
9 Reflection– a collection of intellectual activities to reach deeper understanding (Boud, Keogh and Walker, 1985)- the process of discovering the limits of one’s own expertise (Schön, 1983)- mentally questioning what we understand (Broad, 1924)
10 Example What is best practice in management ? The ‘core’ of best practice in management is making good decisions.Good decisions rely on good use of resources.Making good use of resources requires good communications.Good communications ……..
11 Reflection The Kolb cycle The Cowan diagram Modified Cowan diagram experiencereflectgeneralizetestThe Cowan diagramReflection for actionReflection in actionReflection on actionModified Cowan diagram
13 Perry’s Model of Student Cognitive Development Dualistic thinkingMultiplistic thinkingRelativistic thinkingCommitment
14 Dualistic thinking All knowledge is known by the teacher Every piece of knowledge is either R or WYour answer is either RIGHT or WRONGAsk the teacher.
15 Multiplistic thinking Diversity of people’s opinions seen as their confusion – not yet arrived at the correct answer.Accept diversity as legitimate – teacher has not found the correct answer yet.Uncertainty is legitimate – my opinion is equal to teachers.
16 Relativistic thinking Knowledge is seen as contextualThe value of knowledgeDifferent people’s knowledge – relative to person’s reliability/reputation/worth
17 Lecture Session Structure 10 minsAgreenexttopictostudy10/20 minsSmallgroupdiscussions on individual workWhole-class participationHolistic learningShort bursts of informationShort bursts of activityStudent engagementStudentWorkStudentWorkAn Enquiry-Based Paradigm
18 The Reflective Judgement Model King and Kitchener (1990) based on Dewey (1933) and Perry (1970)Stage 1 – Single Category Belief SystemKnowledge is absolute and concreteStage 2 – Truth not known to everyoneSome people are right and some are wrongStage 3 – Truth is incomplete (yet)All problems have solutions – some have not yet been foundStage 4 – Uncertainty in knowing is acknowledgedAttributed to limitations of the knowerStage 5 – Knowledge is placed in contextInterpretation of evidenceStage 6 – Knowing involves evaluationSome people’s views are evaluated as better than othersStage 7 – Knowledge is constructed via critical enquirySynthesis of existing evidence; judgement on worth of evidence
19 Thinking 2 Descriptive Recall + some cognitive skills = Reflection AnalysisExplanationInterpretationDescription + these cognitive skills = Reflection
20 Thinking 3Reflection +Reflection + questioning the basis of our analysis= Critical Reflection
28 ReferencesDewey, J., (1910;1933), How We Think, London, Heath & CompanyCowan, J., (1998), On Becoming an Innovative University Teacher, Buckingham, OUP and SRHEKitchener, K.S. and King, P.M., (1990), “The Reflective Judgement Model: Transforming Assumptions About Knowing”, in: (J. Mezirow, Ed.), Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood, San Francisco, Jossey-BassLukinsky, J., (1990), “Reflective Withdrawal Through Journal Writing”, in: (J. Mezirow, Ed.), Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood, San Francisco,Jossey-BassMoon, J., (1999a), Learning Journals: A Handbook for Academics, Students and Professional Development, London, Kogan PressMoon, J., (1999b), Reflection in Learning and Professional Development, Kogan Press, LondonMoon, J., (2000), Critical Thinking for Students, 3rd Ed., Oxford, How to Books Ltd.Perry, W.G., (1970), Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in College Years, New York, Holt, Rhinehart & WinstonPerry, W.G., (1999), Forms of Ethical and Intellectual Development in College Years, San Francisco, Jossey-BassRogers, C.R., (1969: 1983), Freedom to Learn for the 80’s, Edinburgh, OU in Scotland
29 Strategies for Engaging Students with Their Own Learning Learning by ‘doing’ made them thinkDoing what?Technical enquiryRecord the ‘doing’=Learning Journal
30 Strategies for Engaging Students Writing made them thinkCritical thinking made them think
31 ExamplesFind something for students to think about and practice the cognitive processes in critical thinking.Extend this with small-group dialectic.
32 DialecticThe art of discussion which seeks to resolve conflict between two or more opposing theories rather than disprove any one of themThat branch of logic which teaches the rules and modes of reasoning
33 Patience Allow students to make mistakes Let them discover the hard wayThen take corrective action throughExplanationExample
34 Strategies for Engaging Students More Examples What is thinking?What is Reason?Write to describe “a coin” from your pocketWhat is “QUALITY in thought & statement”Do we want quality in problem solving?
35 Strategies for Engaging Students Spatial AwarenessDraw diagramsConcept mapsBrain maps
36 Facilitation of Learning Get students to talk about their findings and raw ideasPromote discussion and extensionEncourage discourseFoster dialectic - higher level intellectual process
37 Strategies for Engaging Students More Examples Write aboutwhat you have been doing since the last entryDid anything prevent you form any particular work?What will be your next piece of work?
38 Learning Journal Find and record information + Thinking Writing = Critical reflexion
39 Feedback from students Learning by ‘doing’ made them thinkRecord the ‘doing’=Learning JournalWriting made them thinkCritical thinking made them thinkDoing what?Technical enquiry
40 Learning Journals and Reflexive Thinking LinkingLearning Journals and Reflexive ThinkingGeorge AllanSchool of ComputingExt. 6415Burnaby Terrace,Portsmouth PO1 3AE+44(0)