Presentation on theme: "Circulatory System Replenishes nutrients to interstitial Removes waste from the interstitial Transports hormones Blood Pressure Makes Exchange Possible."— Presentation transcript:
Circulatory System Replenishes nutrients to interstitial Removes waste from the interstitial Transports hormones Blood Pressure Makes Exchange Possible In Large Arteries Systolic 120 Diastolic 80 Spleen?
The Heart Creates The Force That Moves The Blood Four Chambers = 2 pathways Systemic Pathway: Aorta to body = High O2 & low CO2 Vena cavas Back From Body = Low O2 & High CO2 Pulmonary Pathway: Pulmonary Artery to lungs = Low O2 & High CO2 Pulmonary Vein back from lungs= High O2 & low CO2 Separation of pathways insures no mixing of CO 2 blood with O 2 blood and maximizes the O 2 brought to the tissues = warm bloodedness (birds and mammals only) Atria receive blood & fill ventricles to capacity Ventricles pump blood to body tissues Valves insure one way flow
Blood Vessels Resistance of blood flow = pressure Arteries: Carries blood to body tissues Elastic tissue absorbs heart pumping pressure and maintains continuous flow Smooth Muscle varies amount of blood flow & blood pressure Capillaries: Walls are one cell thick and allows easy movement of nutrients out & wastes in - very extensive Veins: Carries blood back to heart Valves insure one way movement BP is very low in these vessels - muscles help milk blood back to heart Excessive consumption of cholesterol or the inability to process it, can lead to plaque build up inside blood vessels Raising BP & adding strain on the Heart HYPERTENSION
Blood Cellular Component - made in marrow Red Blood Cells - transport O2 (hemoglobin) White Blood Cells - destroy foreign material Platelets - initiate clotting Non Cellular Component - Plasma Organic Molecules - (amino acids,sugar,nucleotides,lipids) Proteins - (clotting factors, antibodies) Electrolytes - (Na+, K+, Ca+, Cl-) Cellular Waste - (urea, CO 2 ) Hormones - (insulin, thyroxin, GH, Adrenalin, Cortisol….) Water
White Blood Cells Macrophage - (Eat foreign invaders and clean up debris) Neutrophil - (Release enzymes that kill microbe invaders) Eosinophil - (Release chemicals that attack parasites - worms) Basophil - (release histamines & protaglandins which attract other WBCs) inflamation Lymphocytes - (initiate immune response - antibody production) T-Cells - (Activate B cells to begin producing antibodies) B-Cells - (produce antibodies and form ”Memory Cells”) Immune Response Vaccination?
Lymphatic System Series of vessels that collect fluid that has escaped the circulatory system (lymph) - 3 primary functions removal of excess fluids from body tissues - returning it to circulation by dumping fluid into subclavian veins absorption of fatty acids and transport of fat production of immune cells such as lymphocytes Fluid is under low pressure and requires the contraction of skeletal muscles to support movement - valves insure movement back toward chest
Swollen Glands - Indication of Infection Mumps - viral Elephantiasis - parasitic worms lodged in lymph vessels block return flow of lymph leading to swelling
First Line Of Defense - structures that Help prevent access to pathogens Skin Dead layer of impermeable cells Oil glands Sweat glands Hair Trap and deflect Substances before they get into sensitive areas Tears Tears contain an enzyme (lysozyme) that breaks down the cell walls of bacterai Mucus Membranes Mucus membranes capture bacteria before they get into vulnerable tissues - numerous macrophages can be found here