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Peer peer-assessment & peer- feedback

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1 Peer peer-assessment & peer- feedback
Paul Orsmond a biologist from Staffordshire University – practical approach to assessment Past ten years I have been exploring assessment in HE particularly self- and peer-assessment Developmental process where my own practice has changed

2 Introduction This is a ‘taster’ session considering:
Rationale for engaging in peer-assessment and using peer-feedback. Some consideration on introducing peer-assessment Role of peer-feedback in learning. There is a free book with background details and exemplars of practice. Research based. But first Any specific questions that people have? Happy to talk after the session.

3 Definition Peer assessment has been defined (Topping et al. 2000) as ‘an arrangement for peers to consider the level, value, worth, quality or successfulness of the products or outcomes of learning of others of similar status’. Judgements – making sense – recognising a standard of work Peer-assessment should also be about the assessment process

4 Definition Peer-assessment may be/should be part of the processes used to create learning activities/design assessment/write learning outcomes Implication for curriculum design - Orsmond et al. (in press) and Mok et al. (2006) KWL system. Continual formative assessment process with a summative end-point

5 Rationale Peer-assessment is a process we do a lot of all the time naturally just give it a more formal structure – framework. Meets many assessment challenges in HE Peer-assessment links in closely to established assessment structures Assessment asks students to judge/make sense. Assessment sustain learning.

6 Rationale - peer-assessment and learning in the now
Whenever we learn we question ourselves implies a need to find transparency in the learning process. What type of questions (What is meant question – understanding or what does the theory predict question – synthesis). Beginning to make sense of what is required of them during the assignment process?

7 Rationale - peer-assessment and learning in the now
How am I doing and is this enough? These are both judgement questions and require students to be explicitly aware of the context of study, the criteria by which judgements are made and the standard of work they have produced. The use (analyse) of exemplars (Orsmond et al., 2002) may help in this.

8 Rationale - peer-assessment and learning in the now
Is this right? ‘Right’ needs to be measured against the learning outcomes. Judgements made by the student may depend on the use made of the feedback received. Feedback may be external or internal and again the validity of the feedback can be judged against the marking criteria. So during the assessment process students should be actively working with criteria, and thus making it explicit to themselves in order not only to understand tutor and peer feedback, but also to become familiar with the language of the discipline. Links to CPD.

9 Rationale - peer-assessment and learning in the now
How can I tell? This may best be answered by students through considering and identifying their own learning needs, which may well involve active reflection. Learning needs may be identified in a number of ways.

10 Rationale - peer-assessment learning in and life long learning
Should I go further? – This requires the student to construct strategies for their own learning Strategies may: emerge from the transparency of the learning in the now. involve students adapting or modifying criteria (critical awareness) involve students debating the structure of the assessment and how best they may demonstrate the learning outcomes be developed allowing the student to better prepare for future assessments Needs to be built into the curriculum

11 Rationale – take home points
Active learning process. Self-directed/regulated learning Structured, developmental and managed learning. Personal and community based (peers and professional – learning through CPD). Context (authentic) important. Criteria/standards/outcomes driven. Hidden curriculum uncovered

12 Introducing peer-assessment
Much detailed guidance and information in Orsmond (2004) this is the slim book circulated Falchikov and Goldfinch (2000) – validity and reliability. Falchikov (2003) – carrying out and evaluating peer-assessment

13 Falchikov (2003) Doing and evaluating peer-assessment
Preparation – design carefully/rationale supplied to students/criteria identified by students – read the literature Implementation – organised and planned/mark/comment on peers work/peer feedback given/judgements justified Evaluation – formal/informal – feedback analysis – successes/challenges identified/modification

14 Other thoughts on introducing peer-assessment
Falchikov (2003) - encouraging engagement in both tutors and students. Sivan (2000) – ownership/criteria construction/experience in the process/workplace peer-assessment. Elwood and Klenowski (2002) – Community of practice of shared practice. Adams and King (1995) & Race (1998) on controlling peer-assessment.

15 Introducing peer-assessment
Implementation of peer-assessment Review of some work from biology at Staffordshire University – what type of criteria. Structure and strategies (Social constructivist model) - Rust et al. (2005). Can we influence tutors? - Hughes (1995). Greater awareness of peer feedback – Liu (2006), Cheng & Warren (1997) & Pond et al. (1995)

16 Feedback Sadler (1989) Feedback must be:
Understood The student needs to recognise where they are and where you want them to be Have the ability to close the gap Students give this kind of feedback a lot Language and understanding (Chanock, 2000) and discussion dialogues (Carless, 2006). Neglect of criteria and outcomes (Weaver, 2006).

17 Feedback on what? The ‘form’ and the ‘function’ of assessed assignments what the difference Form – portfolio NOT THE END POINT OF ASSESSMENT – students may draw on past experience Function – relates to demonstrating learning outcomes YES THE END POINT OF ASSESSMENT – face new challenge Learning outcomes vs non formal outcomes termed distractions (Orsmond et al. 2006)

18 Peer-feedback - students supporting students
Sub-culture discussions – active peer-feedback Self-regulated learners seek feedback from external sources – peer feedback meets a need Peer-feedback better allows students to self-assess and to become objective about assessment standards and criteria

19 Peer-feedback - students supporting students
Peer-feedback on exemplars allows opportunity to articulate discipline specific knowledge Peer-feedback allows students to move from the individual domain to the public domain to express understanding. Also allows for reconstruction Peer-feedback rather than peer-assessment – no marks

20 Peer-feedback - students supporting students
Student and tutor constructed alignment of learning Authentic assessment task discussion Personal reasonability – motivation/creativity Reviewing/examination of learning process Transparency in group dynamics

21 Peer-feedback - students supporting students
Intra/inter – group discussion (integrated feedback) allows for assessment of progress and strategies to enhance group effectiveness to be developed – formative development work (Keppell et al. 2006)

22 Example of a peer-assessment activity
Question 1. What do you know about peer-assessment? What criteria have you used to ascertain your knowledge? (Self-assessment is on knowledge) Question 2. What do you want to know about peer-assessment?. Please think about how this judgement was made. Did you form criteria to judge by? Did you use and peer discussion and hence feedback to make judgement by? (Self-assessment is on motivation)

23 Example of a peer-assessment activity
Question 3. what will you do with your newly acquired knowledge. What strategies do you have for implementing newly acquired knowledge? How will you build on what you have learnt? (Self-assessment is on development and reflection)

24 End thoughts Peer-assessment/feedback meet many of the challenges facing assessment practice in HE today BUT you must have A good rationale and careful planning An awareness of the literature/others practice Thoughtful implementation and development Careful evaluation and feedback to teaching team and students A learning based curriculum - developmental

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