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Dr Monika Foster Edinburgh Napier University Induction and transition to UK HE.

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1 Dr Monika Foster Edinburgh Napier University Induction and transition to UK HE

2 Session outline: Induction and transition – key elements Activity International student induction – research results from Asian Learner Experience Project (ALEP) Enhancing induction and facilitating transition: - Peer Mentoring project –SPICE online induction resource Activity - your context

3 Changing Induction An event: Edward (2003) lead in, first contact that (students) have with the university and forms their impression Shoefield and Sackville (2006) induction including three parts: academic, social and administrative A process: Tintos theory (1975): integration of the student into the new instruction style and its systems Huczynski and Buchanans (2001) three stage socialisation model of induction: pre-arrival, encounter and metamorphosis Online induction: Lowe and Cook (2003: 75) a process instead of an event, designed to promote peer group and staff/student interaction as well as academic integration. Students play a central part

4 Transition into new context (Purnell, 2002) Context SPICE Peer mentoring Sp Encounter Phase 2 Induction Social orientation Clarity of Purpose Preparation Phases 1 and 5 Promises Information Expectations Stabilisation Phase 4 Engagement Belonging Academic competence Adjustment Phase 3 Learning Communities Time on Task Assessment The Student and The University

5 Transition (Purnell, 2002) Preparation stage: -Engage with the new learning culture as early as possible, reflect upon own learning, develop essential skills for the new learning context Encounter stage: -Development of supportive peer relationships; Continue to develop essential skills / awareness of roles and expectations Adjustment stage: -Negotiating a place in the new organisational and social settings, relationship building, role development and personal change characterise this stage. -Encourage social networking, peer mentoring; formative assessment Stabilisation stage: - Engagement and belonging; developing academic competence.

6 Transition challenges faced by international students -New place to live and learn -Integration into the new learning and teaching context -Expectations vs reality -Successes and barriers in forming multi-cultural relationships -Different cultural norms including study and socialising -Language, especially academic English -Feeling of being outsiders -Work / study balance, need for careers advice -......

7 Transition challenges faced by international students How do universities address them? Commonalities but also fundamental differences: -Universities profile – teaching or research focused / partnerships abroad or agents -Different support at different Universities (e.g. SHU / ENU) -Roles of academics (Director of Studies / Personal Development Tutor) -Student associations – status, role in students journey -Profile of students – PG or UG, where from, level of English -International – different nationalities and differences within nationalities.

8 Induction and transition to UK HE in your context Task: Part 1 Individually write down areas that you would like to address / need to be addressed in your context in relation to engaging international students (Column 1) Then, give as much detail about what has been done so far (by you, others, institution) to address the issues. When ready, discuss your answers in pairs. Do not fill in Column 3 yet! Keep the answers (part 2 is coming up).

9 Asian Learner Experience Project (ALEP) – key elements in transition to UK HE Asian Learner Experience Project (2008-2010) with colleagues from Sheffield Hallam University involved 200 students from Indian sub- continent on similar programmes in Hospitality and Engineering at SHU and ENU. A need for: Better awareness of University support mechanisms on offer, and their usefulness Effective, "formalised" peer support (e.g. via peer mentoring scheme) Opportunities for social networking created by the University Better social integration opportunities through social events, trips, etc. Career advice, joint projects within the University with students from other faculties driven by the University and built into the programmes.

10 ALEP results- programme of study Number of Responses Recorded Student Satisfaction

11 ALEP results - social integration Number of Responses Recorded Student Satisfaction

12 Research results summary – factors which enhance induction and transition The student has changed, has the Institution? Institution led projects at the University, programme and local level which facilitate peer work with other students Process driven – steady development of skills and awareness Culturally appropriate – e.g. in Asian cultures, students prefer to seek academic, pastoral, social advice from peers Value of peer power– use of peer mentoring, peer support as a means of engaging students Technology – use of social networking for social engagement, induction, programme study, etc Using student stories - student voices appeal to the new students (by students, for students).

13 Practices which enhance transition for international students: Peer mentoring scheme on BA Hospitality Management at Edinburgh Napier University -Internally funded -Matching students in India with students in Edinburgh (10 pairs) -Supportive environment – training and point of contact -Tapping into a cultural preference to get advice from seniors rather then the University, but mentors trained by experienced trainers -Very positive response from the students in Edinburgh and in India -Very promising results: Mentees get pastoral and academic advice, they develop a habit of asking for advice. Mentors acquire new skills, they feel valued and involved. Evaluation -Mentors feedback just after training (attached) -Mentors and mentees feedback (in progress).

14 Pre-arrival development of skills and awareness (SPICE) Student – developing skills and awareness, not information giving Pre-Arrival – long term view of developing skills before arrival and continued at Edinburgh Napier University Induction for – life and study at Napier including student voices Continuing -- storing early work and developing it while at Edinburgh Napier University Education – interactive tasks, guessing, saving work and getting feedback

15 SPICE What is it? An interactive study skills resource for Indian students on BA Hospitality Management at pilot stage (hope to develop further for all international students) Timescale Used successfully with 2 cohorts of students. Work on the generic product to begin soon Whats new? Student driven, much of the content based on student feedback / suggestions, student voices. Students complete activities and get feedback, rather than read about life and study in the UK. 4 strands: - life and study at university, - expectations of you as a students, incl time management, tutorial work, - academic writing, - presentation skills.

16 SPICE Home Page About the Resources Pack Are You Ready for University? Whats Your Learning Style? Get the Basics Time: A Precious Resource Working with Others Introduction What to Expect at Napier Writing Skills Presentation Skills Writing with Style Speaking Our Language Giving Credit Where its Due Picture This Web Links




20 Induction and transition in your context Task: Part 2 Look back to your answers so far. Fill in the 3 rd column with further ideas what could be done – possibly soon or in some near future – by whom, how. Be as specific as possible. Discuss in pairs / groups.

21 References Ballard, B. & Clancy, J. 1994. Teaching Students from Overseas: A Brief Guide for Lecturers and Supervisors. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire Bartell, M. 2003. Internationalisation of universities: a university culture-based framework. Higher Education, 45 (1), 43-70 Crosling, G. Edwards, R. And Schroder, B. 2008. Internationalising the curriculum: the implementation experience in a Faculty of Business and Economics. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management. 30 (2), 107-121. Edward, N.S. 2003. First impressions last: an innovative approach to induction. Active Learning in Higher Education 4 (3): 226-42. Foster, M. 2007. Through the eyes of the students: An empirical study of Chinese students approaches to learning prior to and during study abroad. Shandong Foreign Language Teaching Journal, 2007 Special Edition Foster, M (ed) 2008. SEDA Special: Enhancing the experience of Chinese students in UK Higher Education – Lessons from the collaborative project Foster, M and Barron, P.E. (in press) An Analysis of learning Adjustments of Chinese Students articulating to a UK University. Compare: A journal of comparative education. Haigh, M. 2002. Internationalisation of the Curriculum: designing inclusive education for a small world. Journal of Geography in Higher Education. 26 (1), 49-66. Huczynski, A. and Buchanan, D. 2001. Organisational Behaviour. Harlow: Prentice Hall. Hyland, F. Trahar, S. Anderson, J. Dickens, A. 2008. A changing world: the internationalisation experiences of staff and students (home and international) in UK Higher Education. HEA Escalate Subject Centre Knight, J. 1999. Internationalisation of higher education. In: H. De Wit & J. Knight (Eds.) Quality and internationalisation in higher education (pp. 13-28) Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

22 References (2) Lowe, H., and Cook, A. (2003). Mind the Gap: are students prepared for higher education?, Journal of Further and Higher Education, 27(1), 53–76. Morrison, J., Merrick, B., Higgs, S. & Le Metais, J. 2005. Researching the Performance of International Students in the UK. Studies in Higher Education 30(3), 327-337 Purnell, S. 2002. Calm and composed on the surface, paddling like hell underneath. The experiences of first year university students in New Zealand. Paper presented at the Pacific Rim Conference for the First Year in Higher Education, Christchurch, New Zealand Ramsay, S., Barker, M. & Jones, E. 1999. Academic Adjustment and Learning Processes: A Comparison of International and Local Students in First Year University. Higher Education Research and Development 19(1),89-102 Shoefield, M. and Sackville, A. 2006. Student Induction – from Event to Entitlement. Available from fromeventtoentitlement2005.pdf. (accessed 23/08/09) fromeventtoentitlement2005.pdf Singh, M. 2002. Aligning university curricula to the global economy: Making opportunities for new teaching/learning through the internationalisation of education. Paper presented at the 2002 Australian and New Zealand Comparative and International Education Society conference (Internationalising Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Critical reflections, Critical times), Armidale. Stocks, J. 2006. Indian Learner. (unpublished) Tinto, V. 1975. Dropout from higher education: a theoretical synthesis of recent research. Review of Educational Research. 45 (1): 89-125. Turner, Y. 2008. Culture and Pedagogy: international students and inclusive practices in local HE classrooms. (unpublished, PPT presentation) Warwick, P. 2008. Listening to international students. HEA Enhancing Series Case studies International learning experience.

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