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Presentation on theme: "EYE PROBLEMS IN GENERAL PRACTICE"— Presentation transcript:

MAZHAR KHAN General practitioner Heaton Medical Practice

2 Why is ophthalmology important in General Practice ?

3 Expect 2 - 5 % of all GP consultations to be eye related

4 What do you do when you see a patient with new onset AF who suddenly wakes up in the morning with loss of vision in one eye? What do you do when you see an elderly woman with nausea/vomiting? Your working diagnosis is Gastroenteritis but she has a rt painful red eye. Is it just conjunctivitis? A patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis has been complaining of sore, gritty eyes for a week. You have tried ocular antibiotics and its not getting better. Is there something else going on?

5 General Practice Infective Conjunctivitis 44% Allergic Conjunctivitis 15% Meibomian Cyst 8% Blepharitis 5% Cataract 4.8% Abraision/ F body 3% Glaucoma 2.3% Stye 2% Macular disease 1.1% Ant Uveitis 1.1% No abnormality 1.8% Other conditions 11.9% A & E Foreign body 29% Corneal abrasion 15% Eye injury/trauma 15% Infective Conjunctivitis 9% Allergic Conjunctivitis 3% Lid inflammation 3% Other conditions 26%

6 Things to have in the clinic
Snellen Chart Ophthalmoscope Fluorescein Pen-torch with cobalt filter Pin hole Tropicamide 1% / Cyclopentolate 0.5/1% Phenylepherine 2.5% Amsler Grid Local anaesthetic – Benoxinate/ Amethocaine

7 Anatomy of the human eye

8 Good history taking is vital
History of presenting ophthalmic complaint/s Past ophthalmic history is important Current medical problems/ medications Past medical history could hold the clue

9 Basic ophthalmic examination
Visual acuity for distance (Snellen chart/ Sheridan -Gardner test) and reading (near vision testing card) Visual fields by confrontation method Colour vision by using Ishihara’s chart Eye lids, lid margins, eye lashes Eye surface – conjunctiva, cornea, iris, sclera/ episclera Anterior chamber using a slit-lamp Pupils – not just PERLA

10 Basic ophthalmic examination
Extra-ocular movements Examination of ocular media Dark room Use a mydriatic Cornea Lens Red reflex Vitreous Retina (optic disc, cup: disc ratio, arteries, veins, exudates/hemorrhages, macula)



13 This 42 yr old patient presents with a 2 day Hx/o gritty, red lt eye which has become sticky over the last 24 hrs. His rt eye doesn’t feel right today as well. His vision is normal What is the diagnosis and etiology? What are the clinical features you can see? What other similar conditions should you differentiate it from? How would you treat this patient? How would you manage sticky eyes in babies?

14 Viral Conjunctivitis Follicular changes Hemorrhagic changes

15 Allergic Conjunctivitis
                              Perennial conjunctivitis Vernal conjunctivitis Atopic conjunctivitis Giant papillary conjunctivitis


17 This patient attended his GP with a sore red eye and was treated with drops containing both a steroid and an antibiotic preparation. Three days later he returned saying his vision was blurred and his eye was more painful and intolerant to light What can you see on examination & what is the diagnosis? What is the cause of this condition? What stain has been used here? Which stain would be more usual to use? What are the possible complications? How would you manage this patient? Is there any treatment that you would avoid in this condition?

Non infective infective - Contact lens - Trauma bacterial viral fungal protozoal - Previous corneal problems ALL CORNEAL ULCERS SHOULD BE REFERRED URGENTLY DUE TO SIGHT THREAT

19 scenario 3

20 This 68 yr old patient presented to his GP with eye irritation and redness often worse when his central heating is on What tests are being performed in the above diagram and how are they done? What is the condition and its causes? How do you treat this condition?

21 Scenario 4

22 This 19 yr old medical student complains of irritation of the eye lids
This 19 yr old medical student complains of irritation of the eye lids. It has become much worse recently while studying for exams What is this condition? What are the usual typical features? What is the underlying predisposition of these patients? What are the possible complications of this condition? Describe the treatment Any worries about certain treatment?

23 Scenario 5

24 This 21 yr old patient presented to his GP with a red painful swelling over his eye lid
What is the condition? What is the etio-pathology? How would you treat this patient? What other conditions cause similar eyelid swellings?

25                                                                             Meibomian Cyst Basal cell carcinoma Cyst of Moll Cyst of Zeiss

26 Scenario 6

27 This 19 yr old female presented with a 2 day hx of pain, redness, intolerance to light, excessive watering and blurred vision What is your diagnosis? What are the above examination findings? What is the cause? What complications could arise? How would you treat this condition?

28 complications of uveitis
Hypopyon Secondary Cataract

29 Scanario 7

30 This 67 yr old patient presented with terrible pain in one eye and blurred vision for over 12 hrs. He now has a throbbing headache vomiting and his vision is getting worse Describe this picture What is your diagnosis? What are the types of this condition? How will you manage this patient?

31 Scenario 8

32 How will you manage this patient?
Mrs Walker phones you whilst you are oncall at 6.30pm (just as you were about to go home). She says her 69 yr old hemiplegic husband has suddenly lost vision in his rt eye. Mr Walker also has a past Hx of Atrial Fibrillation Fig fig 2 You visit Mr Walker at home and note that his fundus appears as in fig 1. Describe the 2 pictures and mention your primary diagnosis? Based on the history/ symptoms what would be your differential diagnosis? How will you manage this patient?

33 C.R.V.O Vitreous Hemorrhage Amaurosis Fugax Retinal detachment

34 Scanario 9

35 A 21 year old patient has come to see you today to get his eyes checked. He wants to start driving but is not sure if his vision is fine. On Snellen’s chart he can only read 3 letters in row 5 with the lt eye and 3 letters in row 4 with the rt eye. How will you record his V/A on a paper? Which is his better eye? How will you advice about the appropriateness of driving? Is there any other way you will test his vision for driving? He tells you he wants to apply for a job in a removal company. Is he allowed to drive a HGV? What is the law?

36 Scenario 10

37 A 65 yr old patient presents to you with a watery lt eye.
Fig 1 Fig 2 What are the possible causes of excessive lacrimation (epiphora)? What are the conditions in figures 1 and 2? What causes can you think of leading to the above conditions? What are the possible complications for the above? How would you manage both conditions?

38 Scenario 11

39 What are the 2 types of this common condition shown in fig 1 & 2?
This 28 yr old patient has a 5 day Hx of red and painful Lt eye. There is no discharge and his vision is normal Fig 1 Fig 2 What is the diagnosis? What are the 2 types of this common condition shown in fig 1 & 2? How will you manage this condition? What is the severe form of this condition and its complications?

40 Spot the diagnosis

41 Sub Conjunctival Haemorrhage

42 Posterior Subcapsular Cataract

43 Age Related Macular Degeneration

44 Background Diabetic Retinopathy
Pre-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Advanced Diabetic Retinopathy

45 Compensated (I/ II) Hypertensive Retinopathy
Accelerated (iii/ iv) Hypertensive Retinopathy

Orbital Cellulitis Peri-orbital Cellulitis BUT DON’T MISS THE MORE SERIOUS CONDITION. NEXT

47 Pterygium

A woman presented to her GP with a Hx of floaters in her lt eye. Fundoscopy showed a blurred area at the centre of macula Two more patients presented to the same GP that week needing a Fundal examination, and both displayed similar findings in their lt Eyes only. IS THE OPHTHALMOSCOPE FAULTY? The GP referred himself to the ophthalmology department and was diagnosed as having lt central serous chorioretinopathy. It took 4 months to resolve leaving residual retinal pigmentary change

49 History is extremely important in making a diagnosis
Always carry a Snellen’s chart with you NEVER FORGET TO STAIN A RED EYE Ophthalmic examination is not that difficult – It does get easier with practice IF YOU MAKE AN EFFORT All you need is a working knowledge in ophthalmology and some basic skills to figure out the problem. You are not expected to treat complicated eye problems Opticians/Optometrists are valuable resources available to GP’s. Make good use of them. It can prevent unnecessary referrals.



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