Plant Growth Plants respond to their environment by the way they grow or do not grow.
Plant Growth Growth in plants can result in an increase in length, or an increase in thickness, or both.
Plant Growth The special areas where growth is occurring in plants are called meristems. These areas are easily spotted under a microscope because the recently divided or dividing plant cells are smaller and more dense and have either larger nuclei or visible chromosomes. Meristems are these regions where many cells are undergoing cell division.
Plant Growth Meristems are located near the tips of stems and roots and between a plant’s xylem and phloem.
Two Types of Meristems apical meristems: those meristems at the tips of stems and roots. lateral meristems: a region of cell division located parallel to the sides of a plant (responsible for growth in thickness; vascular cambium and cork cambium)
Two Types of Meristems apical meristems: those meristems at the tips of stems and roots.
Two Types of Meristems lateral meristems: a region of cell division located parallel to the sides of a plant (responsible for growth in thickness; vascular cambium and cork cambium)
Stimuli are any changes in an organism’s environment that cause a response. Stimuli A plant responds to light by growing toward it. Stimuli and Plant Responses
Plant Growth: Chemical Stimuli Hormones are one way a plant’s growth is controlled. Hormones are chemical substances which are made by plants and which affect how plant tissue growth by stimulating plant cells to divide, to enlarge, or to stop growing.
Plant Hormones auxin: a plant growth hormone produced in the growing tips of plants. They cause the cells on the dark side of the plant’s stem to grow longer.
Plant Hormones The plant hormone ethylene helps stimulate the ripening of fruit. Ethylene is a gas that can be produced by fruits, seeds, flowers, and leaves.
Plant Hormones Rapidly growing areas of a plant, such as roots and stems, produce gibberellins, which increase the rate of cell division and cell elongation.
Plant Hormones Root tips produce cytokinins, a hormone that increases the rate of cell division and, in some plants, slows the aging process of flowers and fruits.
Humans make plants more productive by using plant hormones. Some crops now are easier to grow because humans understand how plants respond to hormones. Humans and Plant Responses
Tropism: Environmental Stimuli the growth responses of plants to their environment a plant's directional growth response to a physical stimulus the growth of plants in response to external stimuli such as light, gravity, or contact
Tropism positive tropism: when the plant grows toward the stimulus negative tropism: when the plant grows away from the stimulus
Characteristics of light that are significant for plant growth 1. Intensity etiolated - the condition of a plant when grown in the absence of light elongated stems with small, pale leaves
Characteristics of light that are significant for plant growth 2. Duration duration - the length of daylight affects the photoperiodism of plants the chief factor affecting flowering
Photoperiodism a plant’s response to the number of hours of darkness in its environment the response of a plant to changes in the length of daylight (the reponses of a plant to changes in light intensity and length of days) It often determines whether or not a plant produces flowers.
Photoperiodism Some plants can accurately measure the length of light and darkness to within minutes so they will flower at precisely the right time of year.
Types of Plants regarding Photoperiodism Short-day plants Long-day plants Neutral-day plants (also called Day-neutral plants)
Short-day plants plants that flower when exposed to less than 12 hours of sunlight Short-day plants require 12 or more hours of darkness for flowering to begin. (bloom when the days are short and the nights are long)
Short-day plants examples: chrysanthemums, corn, strawberries, apples, soybeans, violets, ragweed flower naturally out-of-doors in the early spring or in late summer and fall
Long-day plants Plants that flower when exposed to less than 10-12 hours of darkness are called long-day plants. require more than 12 hours of light bloom with long periods of light and short periods of darkness generally flower during late spring and summer examples: clover, gladiolus, sunflowers, beets, lettuce, grains
Neutral-day plants Day-neutral plants flower when they reach maturity and the environmental conditions are right. flower independently of a photoperiod bloom whenever conditions like moisture and temperature are acceptable regardless of the amount of light or darkness
Neutral-day plants usually flower continuously if other conditions (temp., moisture, etc.) are favorable examples: tomato, dandelion, hybrid roses, beans, zinnias, cotton
The number of hours of darkness controls flowering in many plants.