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Creating sustainable communities in China: the case of Nong Jia Le in Anji, China Julie Newton.

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Presentation on theme: "Creating sustainable communities in China: the case of Nong Jia Le in Anji, China Julie Newton."— Presentation transcript:

1 Creating sustainable communities in China: the case of Nong Jia Le in Anji, China
Julie Newton

2 Overview Sustainability in China Eco-tourism
Sustainable livelihoods approach Eco-economy of Anji Nong Jia Le: Experiencing rural life NJL & sustainable livelihoods Moving forward

3 Sustainability in China
3 factors affecting China’s sustainability (Ho, 2006) SIZE SPEED SCARCITY “pollute first, clean up later” attitude Greening of State & Society But doesn’t mean sustainability being pursued Little on Sustainable Communities Eco-demonstration programme Eco-towns “China faces internal dilemma of how to reconcile economic growth with ecological sustainability” (Ho & Vermeer, 2006). Tianjin eco-town

4 Transformation of countryside
New Socialist Countryside movement (2005) Marketisation and modernisation of rural countryside Rise of township and village enterprises (TVEs) Integrated rural/urban development Challenges for sustainability Innovation ECOTOURISM Nong Jia Le

5 Ecotourism No widely agreed definition, but agreement that includes:
“responsible travel to natural areas which conserves the environment and improves the wellbeing of local people” International ecotourism society (2010) No widely agreed definition, but agreement that includes: Travel to natural environment Environmentally & socially responsible travel, generates funds to support conservation, provides benefits for host community 3 features: nature-based environmental & cultural education sustainably managed (Blamey, 2001) Ross & Wall (1999)

6 Ecotourism in China Sheng Tai Nu You: “tourism that is not based on exploiting or harming the local environment ecology or society” (Wang et al, 2009). 2009: Chinese Ecotourism Year National Ecotourism Development Plan (CNTA, 2008) mission of ET: “advocating the harmony of the environment and the economy, strengthening construction of ecological environment, improving education, constantly meeting the demand of ecotourism, and ensure sustainable tourism development. Goals include the development of Chinese tourism industry into a green industry with sustainable development” Types of ecotourism: forest recreation, wetland bird watching, desert exploration, prairie excursions and countryside experiences

7 Sustainable Livelihoods Framework
Livelihood =comprises the capabilities, assets and activities required for a means of living. A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks, maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets while not undermining the natural resource base (Chambers & Conway, 1992)

8 DFID (1999)

9 Land use layout of Anji in 2005
Source: Anji Comprehensive Plan

10 Anji Eco-economy Target: “most beautiful countryside in China” through integrated urban-rural development Endogenous ecological development Local eco-economy: bamboo processing, local food, eco-tourism, and local energy Local government as enabler: provide physical infrastructure/eco-awards Regenerate villages and independent/viable communities Each village has own economic niche Achievements: Diversified industrial and service sector base Reduced income disparities between urban and rural 680,000 tourists, generating Y62.4 billion (Anji Statistical Bureau, 2008)

11 Nong Jia Le: rural ecotourism
“Experiencing Life in Rural Area” Nong = agriculture/ rural Jia = family/home Le = activities Involves: Staying in rural accommodation overnight Eating local food Rural experiences (working on farm, pick your own, outdoor activities) marketed as ecotourism

12 RICH natural resource base Combination of capital assets
Natural capital: natural resource stocks (land, water, wildlife, biodiversity, environmental resources Social capital: social resources which people draw on (networks, membership of groups, relationships of trust, access to institutions) Human capital: skills, knowledge, ability to work, good health, physical capabilities Physical capital: basic infrastructure (transport, shelter, water, energy and communications) and production , equipment which enable people to pursue livelihoods Financial capital: Financial resources (savings, credit, regular remittances, pensions) RICH natural resource base Combination of capital assets

13 Governance: starring system, training, NJL committees, marketing

14 Tourist season Bamboo products Local food products

15 ECOTOURISM Increased income Increased standard of living Social dimensions Local food economy

16 NJL: contributions towards sustainable communities
Multiple livelihood strategies one element of broader livelihood portfolio stimulated local economic development & improved living standards Local food economy SLF highlights opportunities and tensions Not linear: dynamic, inter-linkages between different components Sheds light on meso level processes Need a combination of livelihood assets to be successful

17 Moving forward Governance:
Interaction between provincial, county, town and village level Interaction between tourist board and environmental protection bureau Social justice: Who can engage in NJL?, Who can mobilise key capital assets? Broader sustainability questions: Is NJL changing attitudes/values towards environment?- Is this leading to sustainable behaviour change? Sustainable management: competition within and between villages Cultural attitudes towards nature and people/nature interactions








25 Thank you For more information:
Julie Newton: Alex Franklin: Newton, J. & Franklin, A. (2011) “Delivering sustainable communities in China: using a sustainable livelihoods framework for reviewing the promotion of “ecotourism” in Anji”, Local Environment

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