Presentation on theme: "Research Mentoring Definitions and framework University of Glamorgan – M. Hall."— Presentation transcript:
Research Mentoring Definitions and framework University of Glamorgan – M. Hall
Definitions What is Mentoring? Mentoring is a structure and series of processes designed to create effective mentoring relationships; guide the desired behaviour change of those involved; and evaluate the results for the protégés, the mentors and the organisation.. Murray 2001: p. 5 … A formalised process whereby a more knowledgeable and experienced person actuates a supportive role of overseeing and encouraging reflection and learning within a less experienced and knowledgeable person so as to facilitate that persons career and personal development.. Roberts 2000: p.162
Definitions (continued) What is Mentoring.. A one-to-one, non judgemental relationship in which an individual mentor voluntarily gives time to support and encourage another... Carrad, cited by Miller 2002.. A mentor is someone available for the performer to learn from. The mentors aim is to be available for the performer to use as a resource… Nigel McLennan, 1995
Definitions (continued) What is Mentoring.. mentoring can help you understand the inner workings of the company and draw on the experience of someone whos already gone through what youre going through.. Murray 2001: p.10 Best practices now prove that facilitated mentoring can give the mentee the same opportunity offered the apprentice of medieval times: a chance to learn from a master… Murray 2001: p.11
Historically, mentoring derived from Greek mythology In Hommers Odyssey, Odysseus prepares to fight the trojan war and entrusts his son, Telemachus, to the care of his friend, Mentor, who was a wise and trusted adviser who would be responsible for guiding all aspects of the boys development. Miller 2002: p.24 Les Adventures de Telemaque – Fenelon 1699 Unlike the Greek legend where it is debated whether it is Mentor or the goddess Athena acting through him, who was the wise counsellor to Telemachus, Fenelon in these adventure stories made Mentor the wise and trusted counsellor. The popularity of this book in the early 18 th Century is often accredited as harbinger of the term mentor in the English language. Miller 2002: p.24 Historical Perspective
Andrew Miller 2002: p28-30) Mentoring is a relationship involving process: helping process teaching –learning process reflective process career development process Achieved through a supportive relationship within a formalised framework. The Essential Attributes of Mentoring
Social Learning Theory Bandura 1977 & 1997 Situated Learning – Lave & Wenger 1991 & 1998 Communities of Practice Humanism Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Underpinning Theory
Theoretical context 1 Social Learning Theory –Bandura 1977 & 1997 –People LEARN BY OBSERVING, IMITATION and MODELLING –Learning occurs within a SOCIAL CONTEXT –Concept of MODELLING crucial to this theory This provides a theoretical rationale for understanding the mentoring process.
Theoretical context 2 MODELLING Involves the notion of REINFORCEMENT and PUNISHMENT. Four ways that modelling behaviour is reinforced: 1. Observer is reinforced by the model. –E.G. A student dresses to fit and is accepted by the group. 2. Observer reinforced by a third person. –E.G. Modelled behaviour is noticed and praised by a third party. 3. Imitated behaviour itself leads to reinforcing consequences. 4. Vicarious reinforcement. –Models response is reinforced and the observers actions mimic this.
Theoretical context 3 Conditions for effective modelling: 1.Attention 2. Retention and remembering the observed behaviour 3. Ability to replicate the behaviour 4. Motivation
Theoretical Context 4 Vygotsky: (1896-1934) The More Knowledgeable Other –Someone who has a better understanding or higher ability level than the learner with respect to a particular task, process or concept The Zone of Proximal Development - The distance between a learners ability to perform a task with adult guidance/peer collaboration and learners ability to solve the problem independently.
Community of Practice A collective of people involved in purposeful activity, learning through participation Characteristics –Mutual engagement –Joint enterprise –Shared Repertoire –Has a life cycle
Lave & Wenger Situated learning - knowledge is not acquired People learn through a framework of participation Key Concepts – –Community of practice –Legitimate peripheral participation –Holistic
Legitimate peripheral participation Legitimate peripheral participation (Lave and Wenger, 1991) – a process by which newcomers become part of a community of practice (p.29) Provides a means of analysing and understanding different ways in which learning takes place, where the focus is on learning by participation in the social world
Holistic It involves the whole person and people change as a result. Learning … implies becoming a different person (Lave and Wenger, 1991, p.53) As people participate, the community changes as new knowledge and meanings are generated Learning always happens irrespective of the context
The Mentoring Process Meet, Establish trust, Set goals, Check progress and identify learning needs to achieve goals, Targets met, End relationship.
Stage 1 – Forming and Storming Includes the first meeting, developing trust and rapport, making an agreement and some testing out of each other. This stage can feel uncomfortable, as trust will not have fully developed and you may feel uncertain as the relationship is new and untried. [ Some mentoring relationships may become stuck at stage one because of a poor match between mentor and mentee ] Chronological Model
Stage 2 – Norming and Performing Includes the bulk of the meetings where goals are set, reached and reviewed and a good relationship is formed. Stage 3 – Closing When the targets, or agreed goals have been achieved and the mentee has developed to become more confident and independent, an end to the mentoring relationship can be negotiated. Chronological Model: continued
Best Practice Most Structured/formal Mentoring schemes recommend: –Initial Training for mentees –Devising a code of practice or set of guidelines to help inform the mentoring relationships
Bibliography Suggested Reading Miller, A 2002 Mentoring Students and Young People - A handbook of effective practice Routledge: Oxford MacLennan, N 1995 Coaching and Mentoring Gower: Hampshire UK Murray, M 2001 Beyond the Myths and Magic of Mentoring Josey Bass: San Francisco, USA Roberts, A 2000 Mentoring revisited: a phenomenological reading of the literature Mentoring and tutoring, 8 (2)
Bibliography Social Learning Theory Bandura, A (1977) Social Learning Theory New jersey, USA: Prentice Hall Hergenhahn, B.R & Olson M.H. (1997) An introduction to Theories of Learning 5 th ed (chpt 13- Bandura) USA: Prentice Hall Schaffer, H.R. (2004) Introducing Child Psychology (Chpt 7 Vygotsky) Oxford: Blackwell publishing Situated Learning LAVE, J. and WENGER, E. (1991) Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation, Cambridge, Camb. Uni. Press WENGER, E. (1998) Communities of Practice Learning, Meaning and Identity, Cambridge, Camb. Uni. Press