2 Chapter 9: Big Ideas Precedents and legacy of Washington’s presidency Challenges to the Early Republic – What challenges did they face and how did they overcome them?
3 Formation of Political Parties Factions – opposing groups within partiesCreated in Washington’s Cabinet – WHY?Hamilton vs. JeffersonDifferent political viewsVS.HamiltonJefferson
4 Different Political Views FederalistsDemocratic RepublicansEncourage manufacturing & trade – support the growth of citiesStrong federal governmentLooser interpretation of ConstitutionWanted closer ties with BritainSupport farmers – “cultivators of the Earth”Weaker federal government – preserve state powersStrict interpretation of ConstitutionFavored alliance with FranceEconomyFederal v. State PowerInterpretingConstitutionForeignAffairs
5 Election of 1796 1st election after Washington Adams (Fed)barely wins the electionJefferson elected VP (Dem-Rep)
6 John Adams’ Presidency From MassachusettsFederalistVery different from WashingtonShort, pudgyOutspoken – stood up for his beliefsHonest and able leader
7 Conflict with FranceFrench objected to Jay’s Treaty – began to seize American shipsAmericans called for war!Adams sent diplomats to FranceXYZ Affair – French minister Talleyrand sent three agents to offer the Americans a deal – would not negotiate unless Talleyrand was paid $250,000 and France was given a $10 million loanAmericans refused to pay a cent!WAR FEVER – Adams resistedHow did he avoid war?Strengthened the American navy (built frigates to defend American ships)
8 Impact of the XYZ Affair Many wanted to go to war with France – HamiltonAdams resisted war and lost support of many FederalistsFederalist party split – weakened for the Election of 1800
9 Alien and Sedition Acts Passed in 1798 by the FederalistsDuring the crisis with FranceAlien Act – the President could expel an alien or foreigner thought to be dangerous to the countryMade it more difficult for immigrants to become citizensSedition Act – citizens could be fined or jailed for criticizing the government or its officialsAre these laws constitutional?What about the 1st Amendment?Strongly opposed by the Republicans and Jefferson
10 Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions 1798 and 1799 passed in response to the Alien and Sedition ActsHelped by Jefferson and MadisonWhat did they say?Claimed each state “has an equal right to judge for itself” whether a law is constitutionalIf a state decides a law is unconstitutional it has the power to nullify the law within the stateRaises a BIG issueStates rights!Is this a power that the states have?
12 Election of 1800ResultsTie Jefferson (73 electoral votes) – Burr (73 electoral votes)House of Representatives decided the outcome – Jefferson wins!Strong influence from Hamilton – anti-Burr12th Amendment – requires electors to vote separately for President and Vice PresidentEnd of the Federalist EraAlexander Hamilton is killed by Aaron Burr in a duel (1804)
13 Ch. 9 Quest People Big Ideas – Can you list evidence? Precedents and legacy of Washington’s presidencyChallenges to the Early Republic – What challenges did they face and how did they overcome them?PeopleGeorge WashingtonAlexander HamiltonThomas JeffersonJohn AdamsStudy terms and notes/worksheets