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Published byHilda Allison Modified over 7 years ago
Fungi are important decomposers in the environment 3
Characteristics heterotrophic absorption Singled celled multicellular Most reproduce Sexually Asexually Spores eukaryotic Cell wall …chitin 4 Clip
Reproductive structures spores 4
Bodies made of hyphae (mycelium) 5
Divisions Kingdom Fungi AscomycotaBasidiomycotaZygomycotaDeuteromycota C l a s s i f i c a t i o n b a s e d o n S e x u a l R e p r o d u c t i o n 8
Divison Ascomycota Divison Ascomycota “Sac Fungi” 9
Yeasts single cells, produce daughter cells either by budding or by binary fission the common baker's yeast- Saccharomyces cerevisiae 10
Divison Basidomycota Divison Basidomycota “True Fungi” 11
Fungal Body Structures 1212 Ring Or Pores Stipe
Divison Zygomycota Divison Zygomycota “Molds and Mildews” 13 Clip
Divison Deutromycota “fungi imperfecti” Fungi that only reproduce asexually. Some species of Deuteromycetes are predatory fungi that live in the soil and ensnare animals such as nematodes (roundworms) in a loop of hyphae. 14
Three fungal lifestyles A fungus that feeds on dead organic matter is a saprotroph. Fungi that get their nutrients from living organisms do so in a variety of ways but can be put into two broad categories. Where there is no benefit to the other organism, the fungus in question is a parasite. If there is some benefit to both the fungus and the other organism, the fungi are mutualistic. 16
Usefulness of Fungi Fungi are valuable economically as a Antibiotics, vitamins various industrially important chemicals, such as Acetone, Enzymes fermentation processes, as in the production of alcoholic beverages, vinegar, cheese bread dough Extremely important in soil renewal, through the decomposition of organic matter 17
Trichophyton interdigidale - Athletes foot Epidermophyton and Microsporum These fungi cause a variety of tineas and ringworms, affecting humans and animals. Candida albicans - Candidiasis. This fungus is dimorphic, assuming a yeast-like or a hyphal form. Candidiasis typically is an irritating, itching condition which is more annoying than dangerous. Forms include vaginitis, and thrush. Blastomyces - Blastomycosis. This can cause a mild skin infection or a potentially lethal pulmonary infection. Histoplasma - Histoplasmosis. This widespread fungus occurs most frequently in guano, especially in bat caves, where there is little air flow, and a high concentration of spores. When inhaled, they can cause lung infections which vary from mild bronchial symptoms to lethality. It often results in capsules being formed in the lungs, which on x-rays appear like tuberculosis. 1919
Arthrobotrys and Dactylella - Lassoing fungi. These and other interesting forms have either nooses of cells or adhesive cells which capture soil nematodes as they crawl in their vicinity. Drechslera - Southern Corn Blight. This is a serious pest of agriculture. Alternaria - Late Blight. This affects a variety of plants including wheat, mustards, and solanaceous plants. Verticillium and Fusarium - wilts. Especially important in tomatoes and bananas. Rhizoctonia - damping off, root rot, canker. Tolypocladium - This fungus is the source of cyclosporine, a vital drug for suppressing the immune response in transplant patients. 20
Associations between fungi and plants Mycorrhizae are symbiotic relationships between fungi and plant roots (the term means literally 'fungus root'). Perhaps more than 80% of the species of higher plants have these relationships 24
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