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Chapter 3 Section 1 The Southern Colonies.

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1 Chapter 3 Section 1 The Southern Colonies


3 The Southern Economy Southern Economy
Economy was based on commercial agriculture Based on cash crops tobacco, cotton, indigo, rice, etc. Led to the rise of plantations=large farms which required many laborers (live on the farm)



6 Tobacco and the Chesapeake
Between 1620 and 1660, the demand for tobacco was greater than the supply=high prices the larger quantity of tobacco you produced=the more money you make Required intense manual labor=large work force Chesapeake Bay region was perfect for tobacco farming the bay provided an outlet for trade Most farms were located by rivers so they could access the bay

7 Chesapeake Bay


9 Indentured Servants Enclosure Movement=poor tenant farmers needed jobs
Were willing to become indentured servants Met the need for workers for the tobacco farmers Also b/c of the headright system, it gave the tobacco farmers more land=increase in tobacco production

10 Indentured Servants

11 Rice and Indigo in South Carolina
S.C. proprietors had hoped to grow sugarcane and rice=failed In 1690, new type of rice was introduced Planters from Barbados and Jamaica imported African slaves to cultivate it Led to rice becoming South Carolina’s cash crop In the 1740’s, S.C. began to develop another $ crop 17 yr. old Eliza Lucas discovered that indigo needed high ground and sandy soil Good second crop for rice plantations b/c had different harvesting seasons


13 Indigo Plantation

14 Southern Society Top= Wealthy Landowners->gentry
Huge economic and political influence in South Plantations functioned as self-contained communities 1600’s plantation Small Planters worked w/ indentured servants under difficult conditions 1700’s plantation Slave labor w/ overseers Large brick mansions=England’s upper class Didn’t work their land

15 Southern Society Bottom=Backcountry Farmers
½ indentured servants died b4 they acquired land ½ of those acquired land Pay for deed and land survey Pay for tools, seed, and livestock Plantation owners most land along the rivers Most landowners in the South lived in the “backcountry” Referred to as yeomen Grew some tobacco, practice subsistence farming Corn, beans, potatoes, barley, and rye Uneven distribution of wealth b/w the gentry and yeomen would lead to rebellion

16 Gentry

17 Yeomen

18 Bacon’s Rebellion By the 1660’s, wealthy planters lead by Sir William Berkeley (VA governor) dominated Virginia’s society He controlled legislature Appointed who he wanted to the House of Burgesses Received majority of supporters Exempted himself and his supporters from taxes Also stated you must have property to vote= ½ of VA voted (wealthy)

19 Sir William Berkeley

20 Bacon’s Rebellion Most important issue for colonists was acquiring land By1670, most land not acquired was claimed by N.A.’s Wealthy had no interest in backcountry=opposed expansion In 1675, war b/w backcountry settlers and Susquehannock people Governor Berkeley built more forts in frontier for protection

21 Bacon’s Rebellion In April 1676, backcountry farmers met to discuss the situation Nathaniel Bacon organized his own militia and attacked the N.A.’s House of Burgesses authorized Bacon to raise a force of 1,000 Allowed free men to vote Took away tax exemptions Bacon still wasn’t satisfied He went to Jamestown and seized power, charged Gov. Berkeley w/ corruption Bacon vs. Berkeley until Oct. 1676, Bacon died and his army broke apart

22 Bacon’s Rebellion

23 Bacon’s Rebellion

24 Slavery Increases in Virginia
From 1680, VA colony supported westward expansion African slaves=replaced indentured servants Didn’t have to be freed English government encouraged slavery w/ King Charles establishing the Royal African Company


26 Slavery in the Colonies
Middle Passage=voyage that brought captured Africans to the Americas from Africa Estimated 10 to 12 million Africans 2 million believed to have died on the voyage Read pg. 89 Oladuah Equiano 1st Africans arrived in VA in 1619 Were treated like indentured servants Maryland became the 1st colony to deny their rights in By 1660, most southern colonies limited their rights



29 Olaudah Equiano

30 Slavery in the Colonies
In 1705, VA created a slave code Became more harsh over time Denied rights to property and couldn’t testify against white people Became an accepted institution in colonial society, especially the southern colonies

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