Presentation on theme: "Asma Ounnas, Bilel Remmache, Tom Davis and Toby Weiss"— Presentation transcript:
1 Asma Ounnas, Bilel Remmache, Tom Davis and Toby Weiss Windows ClustersAsma Ounnas, Bilel Remmache, Tom Davis and Toby Weiss
2 Introduction What are Windows Clusters Network Load Balancing ClustersComponent Load Balancing ClustersServer ClustersMicrosoft Windows Clustering Services (MSCS)NT, 2000 and 2003Cluster Membership and Resource ManagementApplications supporting MSCSAlternatives to Windows ClusteringHigh Performance computingResearch Directions in Windows ClusteringHigh Performance ComputingTerraServersImage Clustering
3 What are Windows Clusters? A collection of Windows Servers working together.Three clustering technologies exist:Network Load Balancing ClustersComponent Load Balancing ClustersServer Clusters
4 What are Windows Clusters? Network Load Balancing ClustersThe Network Load Balancing (NLB) service enhances the availability and scalability of Internet server applicationsThese include: Web, FTP, firewall, proxy and VPN servers - any applications which communicate using the TCP/IP or UDP protocolsEach host runs separate copies of the Web Server ApplicationClient requests are distributed across hosts in a clusterIf a host goes offline for any reason, requests are automatically redistributed amongst remaining hosts – providing redundancyFor increased user capacity and fault tolerance, additional servers can be added at any time, allowing the Web applications to be distributed further
5 What are Windows Clusters? Network Load Balancing ClustersTwo connected NLB Clusters – to interlink distributed Firewalls and Web ServersTaken from:/proddocs/en-us/Default.asp?url=/resources/documentation/WindowsServ/2003/standard/proddocs/en-us/NLB_key_features.asp
6 What are Windows Clusters? 2. Component Load Balancing ClustersThis feature of Microsoft Application Center 2000 allows COM+ applications to be distributed across multiple serversThe main purpose of this cluster type is for distributing servers for large web-site applications usually involving both a Web Tier (to provide web page layouts etc) and a Business Logic Tier (e.g. providing a connection to a database server)This provides:Manageability – Single unified content management system, for content distributed across clusters, remote administrationScalability – Easy to cope with changing throughput needsAvailability – No single point of failure – redundant web-sites
7 What are Windows Clusters? 3. Server Clusters“A server cluster is a group of independent computer systems, known as nodes, working together as a single system to ensure that critical applications and resources remain available to clients”They provide high-availability application support for distributed servers such as Database servers (such as MS SQL), Collaboration servers (such as Exchange) and Infrastructure servers (such as file and print servers)Every node may be attached to one or more cluster storage devicesClusters can be setup, configured and managed remotely using specialised Administrative software: Microsoft Windows Server System – Server cluster overview – 2004 – Available from the World Wide Web:/standard/proddocs/en-us/Default.asp?url=/resources/documentation/WindowsServ/2003/standard/proddocs/en-us/cs_about_3jub.asp
8 What are Windows Clusters? 3. Server Clusters (Continued…)Clustering software is used to control communication between nodes. It manages communication to control resource management and also controls cluster activity, communication between cluster nodes, and failure operations.Administrative Software allows configuration, control and monitoring of clusters and the nodes within them
9 What are Windows Clusters? 3. Server Clusters (Continued…)Server Clusters Example Diagram 
10 Microsoft Cluster Service MSCS (Microsoft Cluster Service)First shipped with Windows NT Server Enterprise Edition (1997)Later upgraded in Windows 2000 Advanced Server and Windows Server 2003
11 Microsoft Cluster Service MSCS TerminologyNodeResourceGroupQuorum resourceVirtual ServerHeartbeats
12 Microsoft Cluster Service Windows NT ClustersCannot have more than two nodesNodes, groups, and resources
13 Microsoft Cluster Service Win 2000 Vs Win 2003 MSCSWindows 2000 Server:Advanced Server: 2 nodesDatacenter Server: up to 4 nodesSupport for geographically dispersed nodesWindows 2003 Server:Up to 8 nodes in both Advanced and DatacenterSupport for N+I configurations and 64-bit ProcessorsMajority Node Set
14 Microsoft Cluster Service How do MSCS work?MSCS deals with:Cluster membership activitiesResource management (and failure handling)Application state failoverCluster management
15 State transition diagram for cluster membership Microsoft Cluster ServiceCluster MembershipState transition diagram for cluster membership
16 Microsoft Cluster Service Resource ManagementResource Control Libraries map to different resourcesA resource can be:OfflineOnline pendingOnlineOffline pendingFailedFailed resources are recovered
17 MSCS Supported Applications Microsoft Cluster ServiceMSCS Supported ApplicationsMicrosoft SQL ServerOracle Database ServerSAP R/3Microsoft ExchangeMicrosoft Internet SecurityBut not many more!
18 Windows Vs. Other Systems Windows provides support for High Availability (HA):Network load balancingFailover and redundancyBut there is another kind of clustering . . .
19 Windows Vs. Other Systems High Performance ComputingCurrently Windows has no built-in support for this.Several different cluster models exist:BeowulfSingle System Image
20 Windows Vs. Other Systems Beowulf Clusters“Beowulf Clusters are scalable performance clusters based on commodity hardware, on a private system network, with open source software (Linux) infrastructure.”
21 Windows Vs. Other Systems Beowulf Clusters (Continued…)How does they work?PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine)Allows network of computers to appear as one concurrent computational resourceMPI (Message Passing Interface)Goal to develop a standard for message passing programs.
22 Windows Vs. Other Systems Single-System Image ClustersSingle-system image (SSI) involves making a distributed system appear as a single system to the user.openMosix:Supports transparent migration of processesSoftware does not need to be rewritten to take advantage of clusterAchieves automatic load balancing
23 Windows Vs. Other Systems Windows HPCAlthough Microsoft do not provide direct Windows support for HPC clusters:There is research going on into thisThird parties provide their own MPI libraries for WindowsSouthampton HPC Centre:
24 Research Directions Research Directions High-Performance Computing: WMPI IITerraServersImage Clustering:ImageSeer: Clustering and Searching WWW ImagesLocality Preserving Clustering for Image Database
25 High-Performance Computing:WMPI II Research DirectionsHigh-Performance Computing:WMPI IISouthampton HPC CentreCritical Software specialise in creating High Performance Computing (HPC) middleware.WMPI II™: is the high-end member of Critical Software's line of middleware products for HPC clusters providing a comprehensive MPI- 2 standard implementation: version 2.0 of MPI-2.WMPI II is widely used in industrial applications: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and by academia for research and development programmes and for educational purposes.WMPI II is free to download and evaluate!
26 High-Performance Computing: WMPI II(Cont) Research DirectionsHigh-Performance Computing: WMPI II(Cont)PerformanceReliabilityThread safetyFull MPI-2 standard complianceSupport for 3rd party tools (debugger and profiler)Large Platform support (Windows platforms and Linux-distributions)Commitment for continues product evolution (to meet evolving market needs)Integration and embedded support (OEMs)Professional technical supportScalability, up to > 1000 processors without any architectural limitation
28 Research Directions 2. TerraServers Microsoft® TerraServer displays (stores) aerial, satellite, and topographic images of the earth in a SQL database available via the Internet,One of the most popular online atlases: 22 terabytes of image data from the US Geological Survey (USGS).Initially deployed in 1998.The system demonstrated the scalability of PC hardware and software – Windows and SQL Server – on a single, mainframe-class processor.In September 2000, the back-end database application was migrated to 4-node active/passive cluster connected to an 18 terabyte Storage Area Network (SAN). The new configuration was designed to achieve 99.99% availability for the back-end application.
29 TerraServer Installation Photograph Research DirectionsTerraServer Installation Photograph
30 2. TerraServers (Cluster-SAN) Research Directions2. TerraServers (Cluster-SAN)Storage Area Networks: simplified the wiring between nodes and disk resources and had good management tools => became the preferred processor-storage inter-connection mechanism3 years of operationThe hardware and software components of the TerraServer Cluster and SAN: reliable, easy to operate when no changes are neededBoth high-traffic web server and a high traffic web service
31 TerraServer SAN Cluster Block Diagram Research DirectionsWindows ClustersTerraServer SAN Cluster Block Diagram
32 Research Directions 2. TerraServers (Cont) TerraServer failed to achieve four nines of availability – 99.99%. The vast majority of the downtime was due to operations mistakes that could have been avoided with improved procedures.2004: SAN cluster replaced with a duplexed set of “white-box” PCs containing arrays of large, low-cost, Serial ATA disks: TerraServer Bricks – A High Availability Cluster AlternativeThe goal is to operate the popular TerraServer web site with the same or higher availability than the TerraServer SAN at a fraction of the system and operations cost.Improving resolution to 0.5 m.
33 TerraServer Brick architecture Research DirectionsTerraServer Brick architectureThe TerraServer web site is composed of:A redundant farm of web bricks,A mirrored array of storage bricks,A redundant LAN linking the web and storage bricks,A remote IP keyboard video, mouse (KVM) switch,And, remote IP power distribution units (PDU).
34 TerraServer Brick architecture Research DirectionsTerraServer Brick architecture
35 Research Directions 3. Image Clustering Image clustering is a technique that helps searching and browsing image repositories in several ways, including image data preprocessing, user interface designing, and search result representation.ImageSeer: Clustering and Searching WWW ImagesLocality Preserving Clustering for Image Database
36 Research Directions 3.1 ImageSeer system Microsoft Research Asia (Beijing, China) and DCS University of ChicagoImageSeer is a web image search engine:Using a vision based page segmentation algorithm, a web page is partitioned into blocksThe textual and link information of an image can be accurately extracted within the block containing that imageThe textual information is used for image representationBy extracting the page-to-block, block-to-image, block-to-page relationships through link structure and page layout analysis, an image graph is constructedWith the graph models, techniques used from spectral graph theory and Markov Chain theory for image ranking, clustering and embedding
37 Figure 4. Design of WWW image search system Research DirectionsFigure 4. Design of WWW image search system
38 3.1 Locality Preserving Clustering for Image Database Research Directions3.1 Locality Preserving Clustering for Image DatabaseSpectral clustering method has been one of the most promising clustering methods in the last few years, because it can cluster data with complex structure, and the (near) global optimum is guaranteed.Existing spectral clustering algorithms: difficult to handle data points out of training set (Normalized Cut, direct Kmeans, PCA+Kmeans)Locality Preserving Clustering (LPC):Shares many of the data representation properties of nonlinear spectral methodProvides an explicit mapping function which is defined everywhere, both on training data points and testing points.
39 Windows Clusters Summary What are Windows Clusters Network Load Balancing ClustersComponent Load Balancing ClustersServer ClustersMicrosoft Windows Clustering Services (MSCS)NT, 2000 and 2003Cluster Membership and Resource ManagementApplications supporting MSCSAlternatives to Windows ClusteringHigh Performance computingResearch Directions in Windows ClusteringHigh Performance ComputingTerraServersImage Clustering