3 Language StructurePhonemesMorphemesGrammarSemanticsSyntax
4 All languages contain…. PhonemesMorphemesThe smallest units of sound in a language.English has about 44 phonemes.The smallest unit of meaningful sound.Examples :Can be words like a or but.prefixes or suffixes…”ed” at the end of a word means past tenseHow many phonemes in cats?How many morphemes in cats?Example: How many phonemes does platypus have?
5 How many phonemes and morphemes? RichHat Knock Bring Through StrictStretchBatsCalledNightlyLuck, lucky, unluckyCoolnessZebrasDefroster
6 Language Structure Grammar: The rules of a language. Example: Subject/verb agreement - singular subject takes a singular verb, while a plural subject takes a plural verb.Semantics - rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences.Examples:Arms race means weapons race, not body parts raceed on the end of a word makes it past tenseSyntax: the order of words in a language.Adjectives come before nounsDon’t use dangling participles, run on sentences, fragmentsIs this the White House or the House White?
7 Language Acquisition Receptive language Productive language Ability to comprehend speechBegins 4 monthsCan read lips7 mo. Can segment spoken sounds into individual wordsCan listen to an unfamiliar languageProductive languageAbility to produce words with meaningStarts around 4 months of age with babbling
8 Language Acquisition Stages that we learn language… Babbling Stage make speech sounds both in and out of native languageFirst able to discriminate speech soundsExample: Ba da taHolophrastic Stage/one word stageProductive language begins (speaking meaningful words)Receptive language (comprehension of meaning)Example: Momma, dada, dogTelegraphic Stage/two word stageGrammatically correct 2 word sayingContains mostly nouns and verbsFollows rules of syntaxExample: Want juiceOvergeneralization - extending the application of a rule to items that are excluded from it in the language norm,Example: Mommy holded the baby4. Speaking in Complete Sentences
9 How do we learn language? Behaviorist TheoryNativist Theory
10 Behaviorist Theory B.F. Skinner Association – sights and sounds Imitation – modeling othersReinforcement- by smiles and hugs
11 Chomsky’s Theory Inborn Universal Grammar Universal language acquisition device – In born (innate)readiness to learn grammatical rulesPrewired to learn language, social interaction turns the switch onThe stages of language development occur at about the same ages in most children, even though different children experience very different environments.Universal grammar – common grammatical building blocks that all languages share (inborn).Children use nouns first before they learn verbs or adjectivesAll languages have nouns and verbs, subjects and objects, negations and questionsIf there is a word purple in a language it will also have a word for redExample: Overgeneralization
12 OvergeneralizationOvergeneralization - Applying a grammatical rule too widely and thereby creating incorrect formsSupports Chomsky’s Universal GrammarExample: “I goed to the store to get cookies”, “I rided my bike”
13 Statistical Learning and Critical Periods Statistical Learning – discerning word breaks, analyzing which syllables most often go togetherInfants up to the age of 10 months can do this, after that they become functionally deaf to other languagesCritical Period – sensitive period for mastering certain aspects of languageChildren not exposed to language by age 7 gradually lose ability to master any languageLearning a language as an adult you will always speak with an accentMost easily master language as a child
15 Your little sister says: “Taked cupcake Your little sister says: “Taked cupcake!” Explain how this utterance may illustrate the following language concepts: phoneme, morpheme, telegraphic speech, language acquisition device.
16 Whorf’s Linguistic Determination Hypothesis The idea that language determines the way we think.The Hopi tribe has no past tense in their language, so Whorf says they rarely think of the past.Underestimates how much thinking occurs without language
17 Thinking and Language Bilingual advantage Thinking and images Thinking affects language, which then affects our thoughts.