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Chapter 14, Politics and Government in Global Perspective Key Terms.

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1 Chapter 14, Politics and Government in Global Perspective Key Terms

2 politics The social institution through which power is acquired and exercised by some people or groups. government The formal organization that has the legal and political authority to regulate the relationships among members of a society and between the society and those outside its borders.

3 state The political entity that possesses a legitimate monopoly over the use of force within its territory to achieve its goals. political sociology The area of sociology that examines the nature and consequences of power within or between societies, as well as the social and political conflicts that lead to changes in the allocation of power.

4 power The ability of persons or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others. authority Power that people accept as legitimate rather than coercive.

5 traditional authority Power that is legitimized on the the basis of long-standing custom. charismatic authority Power legitimized on the basis of a leader’s exceptional personal qualities.

6 routinization of charisma Occurs when charismatic authority is succeeded by a bureaucracy controlled by a rationally established authority or by a combination of traditional and bureaucratic authority. rational-legal authority Power legitimized by law or written rules and regulations.

7 monarchy A political system in which power resides in one person or family and is passed from generation to generation through lines of inheritance. Authoritarianism A political system controlled by rulers who deny popular participation in government.

8 totalitarianism A political system in which the state seeks to regulate all aspects of people's public and private lives. democracy A political system in which the people hold the ruling power either directly or through elected representatives

9 pluralist model Power is widely dispersed throughout many competing interest groups. special interest groups Political coalitions made up of individuals or groups that share a specific interest they wish to protect or advance with the help of the political system.

10 political action committees Organizations of special interest groups that fund campaigns to help elect (or defeat) candidates based on their stances on specific issues. elite model Power is concentrated in a small group of elites and the masses are relatively powerless.

11 power elite Made up leaders at the top of business, the executive branch of the federal government, and the military. political party An organization whose purpose is to gain and hold legitimate control of government.

12 political socialization The process by which people learn political attitudes, values, and behavior. military ‑ industrial complex The mutual interdependence of the military establishment and private military contractors. The economic system in global perspective focuses on the nature of economy.

13 terrorism The use of calculated, unlawful physical force or threats of violence against a government, organization, or individual to gain some political, religious, economic or social objective. war Organized, armed conflict between nations or distinct political factions.

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