Breathing Process Begins when the phrenic nerve stimulates the diaphragm to contract and flatten (descend), chest cavity enlarges. This creates a decrease in pressure within the thorax and draws air into the lungs – inhalation/inspiration Diaphragm relaxes and rises back into the thoracic cavity, increasing pressure with the thorax. This causes the air to be forced out of the lungs and is called exhalation/expiration.
Physical Examination Inspection – visual examination of the external surface of the body as well as of its movement and posture Palpation – process of examining by application of the hands or fingers to the external surface of the body to detect evidence of disease or abnormalities in the various regions
Physical Examination Auscultation – process of listening for sounds within the body, usually to sounds of thoracic or abdominal viscera, to detect some abnormal condition, or to detect fetal heart sounds. Percussion – use of the fingertips to tap the body lightly but sharply to determine position, size and consistency of an underlying structure and the presence of fluid or pus in a cavity.
Common Signs and Symptoms Cough – forceful and sometimes violent expiratory effort preceded by a preliminary inspiration. –Non productive/unproductive – not effective in bringing up sputum “dry cough” –Productive – effective in bringing up sputum
Common Signs and Symptoms Sneeze – To expel air forcibly through the the nose and mouth by spasmodic contraction of muscles of expiration due to irritation of nasal mucosa Epistaxis – hemorrhage from the nose; nosebleed Expectoration – the act of spitting out saliva or coughing up materials from the air passageways leading to the lungs
Common Signs and Symptoms Hemoptysis – expectoration of blood arising from the oral cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi or lungs Rhinorrhea – watery discharge from the nose Pleural rub – friction rub caused by inflammation of the pleural space
Common Signs and Symptoms Rales – produced by passage of air through bronchi that contain secretion or exudates or that are constricted by spasm or a thickening of their walls. (crackles) Rhonchi – rales or rattlings in the throat, especially when it resembles snoring Stridor – harsh sound during respiration ; high pitched and resembling the blowing of the wind, due to obstruction of passages Wheeze – a whistling sound or sighing sound resulting from narrowing of the lumen of a respirator passageway
Common Signs and Symptoms Apnea – temporary cessation of breathing Dyspnea – difficult breathing Orthopnea – discomfort in breathing in any but erect, sitting or standing position Tachypnea – abnormal rapidity of breathing Bradypnea – abnormally slow breathing Kussmaul respirations – very deep, gasping type of respiration associated with severe diabetic acidosis
Common Signs and Symptoms Cyanosis – bluish, grayish, slate like, or dark purple discoloration of the skin due to the presence of abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood. Hypercapnia – increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood Hypoxemia – insufficient oxygenation of the blood Hypoxia – deficiency of oxygen
Disorders Pneumonia Asthma Pulmonary embolism Pneumothorax What are the causes and symptoms of these disorders?