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1 WWW 6 Trip Report Report on the Sixth International WWW Conference held in Santa Clara on April 7-11, 1997 Brian Kelly UK Web Focus UKOLN University.

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Presentation on theme: "1 WWW 6 Trip Report Report on the Sixth International WWW Conference held in Santa Clara on April 7-11, 1997 Brian Kelly UK Web Focus UKOLN University."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 WWW 6 Trip Report Report on the Sixth International WWW Conference held in Santa Clara on April 7-11, 1997 Brian Kelly UK Web Focus UKOLN University of Bath BA2 7AY Contents About WWW 6 W3C Session - HTML Microsoft IE 4.0 W3C Session - HTTP Web Site Mapping Workshop XML Tutorial Technical Papers Plenary and Panel Sessions

2 2 UK Web Focus UK Web Focus: National Web coordination post Responsibilities include: –Technology watch –Information dissemination –Coordination –Representing JISC on W3C Based at UKOLN, University of Bath Brian Kelly appointed on 1st Nov 1996 Formerly worked at Netskills (Newcastle University) and universities of Leeds, Liverpool and Loughborough

3 3 About WWW 6 WWW 6: Held at the Santa Clara Convention Centre Workshops and tutorial sessions on Monday 7th April Technical papers from 8-10th April Developer's Day and History Day on 11th April Various other BOFs and meeting (including Web Accessibility Initiative day) About 1,800 participants (down on previous years)

4 4 Before the Conference Conference details including online booking available on Web - Online conference (ICE) available for delegates before, during and after conference Conference proceedings available online

5 5 Accessibility Accessibility was conference theme Web Accessibility Initiative: About 80 participants WAI approval Issues Accessibility is important WAI will address: protocols, software developers, information providers and end users Need for university / departmental / project policy?

6 6 Accessibility Comments made by Peter Bosher (RNIB): Poorly designed navigation (when you follow several links, and then get back to where you started) is a particular problem for the blind who don't have the visual clues that the sighted have When navigating the Hotwired site his browser said "link link link link image image image without caption" Tables are difficult to process by speech browsers Painstakingly competing a form and then getting an error message because the form was browser specific is annoying

7 7 Further Information Further information on the Web Accessibility Initiative, and on general accessibility resources is available at: Other/design.html

8 8 HTML Developments Cougar: Code name for next version of HTML Needed as "forces driving evolution of HTML are threatening media independence" First draft available summer 97 Some parts already released: WD-htmllinkWD-script WD-framesWD-forms WD-objectWD-entities WD-fileupload(WD-printing, WD-positioning) See MarkUp/Cougar/ Day 1 - 2 pm W3C Session

9 9 WD-htmllink Hypertext links in HTML. Defines link relationships (e.g. could be used to facilitate printing in a single document split into several files) Related to Style Sheet work Define TITLE attribute for hints for accessibility e.g. text In this example a browser could display the text in, say, a pop-up window. Day 1 - 2 pm W3C Session

10 10 WD-htmllink WD-htmllink (continued) Defines uses of META tag (e.g. for use with PICS) Define language(s) for documents Define pages which can be indexed by robots prohibits robots from indexing and following links Day 1 - 2 pm W3C Session

11 11 WD-script Client-side Scripting and HTML Defines mechanism for embedding scripting languages in HTML: document.write (" This will work ") used for external scripts Default script language can be defined: Day 1 - 2 pm W3C Session

12 12 WD-frames Defines existing usage of FRAME tag Includes IFRAME proposal for inclusion of frames inline in body of HTML documents (FRAME tag replaces BODY tag): This document contains an inline frame that unfortunately your user agent doesn't support. Alternatively you can get the related document here. That's all folks! Initial release of FRAMES caused problems,and there are still accessibility concerns Day 1 - 2 pm W3C Session

13 13 CSS Day 1 - 2.45pm W3C Session The CSS1 (Cascading Style Sheet) spec: Replaces all HTML extensions Can replace most uses of tables Provides floating text elements Provides control over background WD-style Defines relationships between HTML document and stylesheet Cascading style sheets can be defined by: Can define alternate style sheets for media types:

14 14 CSS - The Next Wave In next version of CSS: Multiple media (using @media ) Improved printing support (headers, footers, margins, etc.) See WD-printing Better control over positioning (e.g. out-of-flow elements, navigational bars, layering) See WD- positioning Better font control (mixed fonts - e.g. helvetica and cyrillic for, say, language dictionaries) Aural cascading style sheets. See WD-acss For visually impaired an incar use, industrial and medical systems, entertainment, illiterate: – rendered as loud voice, pause-before –Left column in table spoken in left speaker Day 1 - 2.45 pm W3C Session

15 15 CSS Questions QHow closely matched are the CSS and XML? AThey are a good match QFeatures such as side bars (e.g. ) are likely to be widely used. Should such attributes be registered? AIt's likely that a set of standard style sheet definitions will be released, and they'll be widely used QWill CSS held to reduce network bandwidth? AYes, see NL-PerfNote.html QWhat about headers and footers? AIn next release Day 1 - 2.45pm W3C Session

16 16 HTML Math The HTML Math spec: Released in May 97 - see Core standard covering presentation and markup Will contain 20 presentation tags with 40 attributes Will contain 50 content tags (roughly equivalent to functions on scientific calculator) Initially implemented using embedded elements (ActiveX, Java) enabling 3rd parties to develop rendering tools (won't need to wait for Netscape / Microsoft) Software will be available in June 97 Full implementation requires better browser APIs (e.g. DOM) Day 1 - 2 pm W3C Session

17 17 Dynamic HTML Based on work of the Document Object Model (DOM) working group Provides an API (applications programming interface) for HTML page structure and style Microsoft's Internet Explorer 4.0 implements many features of Dynamic HTML See: – files/html/default.htm – prog/aplatfrm/dynhtml-f.htm Day 1 - 2 pm W3C Session

18 18 Microsoft IE 4.0 Presentation in the Industrial Presentations track on Internet Explorer's implementation of Dynamic HTML HTML is limited : Animation using animated GIFs is limited Can't position or layer elements The web is slow - interaction with server needed Dynamic HTML: Based on emerging W3C proposals Covers: –Dynamic styles and dynamic contents –CSS positioning –Data binding Day 2 - 4 pm

19 19 Microsoft IE 4.0 Dynamic HTML Positioning control (in X, Y and Z planes) Position can be changed at run time (e.g. on mouseOver event) Day 2 - 4 pm Dynamic Content The Document Object Model (DOM) can be used to change the content at runtime: function change() "new header"... Old header For example a table of contents could be built dynamically

20 20 Microsoft IE 4.0 Dynamic Style Sheets CSS properties can be changed at run time: A more elegant way is to store the Javascript code in the document HEAD (or externally) CSS Positioning Elements can be positioned absolutely or relative to each other Text on top of image Day 2 - 4 pm Text on top of image

21 21 Microsoft IE 4.0 Data Binding Currently data binding (merged data from database with HTML code) is done on the server Data binding proposal enables it to be done on the client so that, for example, the output from a search engine can be resorted on the client) But will this be in Cougar? Day 2 - 4 pm com/gallery/files/ html/repeat.htm

22 22 Microsoft IE 4.0 Dynamic HTML Multimedia Effects Uses IE4 control to provide multimedia effects Removes need for animated GIF Variety of effects available: Transitions, filters, structured graphics, sequencing sprite control (scripted animated GIFs) Example - e rotating in 3D Day 2 - 4 pm How will Powerpoint be marketed if this is possible in HTML?

23 23 Microsoft IE 4.0 Document Object Model (DOM) DOM enables every HTML element to be processed as an object (i.e. DOM is an API for accessing HTML elements) Day 2 - 4 pm DOM is not a set of tags or a new language (it is language independent)

24 24 Netscape Netscape have also expressed support for Cougar See http://www.netscape. com/focus3/comprod/ columns/intranet/ open_standards.html http://www.netscape. com/flash1/comprod/ products/ communicator/

25 25 Cougar and Browser Issues Standards IE 4.0 conforms to HTML 3.2 and CSS1, and implements new W3C drafts (e.g. DOM, forms) Netscape have also expressed commitment to Cougar Javascript is being standardised by ECMA Support for legacy browsers? Don't use new features New features degrade gracefully New features won't work (e.g. Tetris example - 10K HTML file, which used no ActiveX controls) Day 2 - 4 pm

26 26 Support for Multiple Browsers How do we deploy new features when there are many different versions and many browsers to support? Offer choice at client: Click here if you have IE 4 or Netscape 4 otherwise click here Maintenance of resources can be done manually or using site management tool Offer choice at server: if useragent=IE4.0 then serve index.dom.html else serve index.html Various toolkits can provide this (Microsoft Active Server Pages, Netscape Suitespot, PHP/FI)

27 27 Developer's Day - HTTP Transparent Content Negotiation (TCN) IETF draft Enables: –Deployment of new data formats and tags –Tailoring of content for new platforms –Internationalisation See /draft-ietf-http-negotiation-01.txt TCN spec server sends list of variants: Day 4 - 9 am {logo.giftype image.png} {logo.pngtype image.png} HTML source Variant list sent by server

28 28 Developer's Day - HTTP Feature Negotiation IETF draft Part of TCN, addressing extensibility No more "Click here from frames, here for tables" buttons Universal agreement on new features not needed See drafts/draft-ietf-http-feature- reg-00.txt Day 4 - 9 am

29 29 Web Site Mapping Workshop Half day workshops on web collections: Defining relationships between groups of related documents Useful for: –printing –off-line browsing –indexing Presentations on: –Protocols (Web Collections, MCF, Dublin Core) –Applications (HotSauce, WebCutter, WebMapper) Day 0 - 9 am

30 30 Web Visualisation Various proprietary ways of visualising web sites are available (e.g. MAPA, WebCutter) Need a standard for defining relationships between web pages, to provide application independence get/PAPER40.html Day 0 - 9 am

31 31 Conclusions The Web Site Mapping workshop agreed: Split protocol into three: 1Metadata Model2File Format Syntax 3Metadata Manipulation Language Further discussions needed on: –Is a new query language is needed (e.g. SQL, HyTime Query Language) –Do we need a metadata query language or a general document query language –A list of common site mapping operations XML is likely to be the preferred syntax Web Collections spec to be updated - NOTE-XMLsubmit.html Day 0 - 9 am

32 32 Metadata Architecture Much work in progress in developing a metadata architecture for the web Metadata Web Collections, PICS, TCN, MCF, DSig, DC,... Addressing URL Data format HTML Transport HTTP

33 33 XML Tutorial XML: Extensible markup language An SGML-lite designed for the Internet Developed by the SGML community Tools being developed by SGML tool vendors Microsoft involvement Two XML draft specs: –XML –XML-linkA richer form of linking Stricter than HTML (to reduce client processing): –Attribute quoting –End tags needed A paragraph Day 0 - 2 pm English French

34 34 What's It Look Like? What does an XML document look like? <!doctype titlepage system "typo.dtd" [ ]> Hello, world! <!--* In some copies the following decoration is hand-colored, presumably by the author *--> Munde Salutem Hello, world! Stop the planet, I want to get off! Simple XML document More complex XML document with DTD specified

35 35 The Jumbo XML Browser Jumbo is an XML browser written in Java. It was developed to view CML (Chemical Markup Language) resources. It can view other XML applications. omf/cml/download.html

36 36 CDF XML can be used to define: Document structure Structure for metadata Structure for applications CDF (Channel Definition Format) is: An XML application A proposed standard for push technology Developed by Microsoft and implemented in IE4 See TR/NOTE-CDFsubmit.html

37 37 Further Information on XML For further information see: Activity info/standards/xml/why/xmlapps.htm feature/

38 38 Extending HTML in a Principled Way with Displets This paper describes a Java solution to adding new tags (charts, links, maths, etc.) to HTML. … Smith 125… JanAprJulOct Smith125257327250 Green137140110160 HTML source HTML output JanAprJulOct Day 1 - 11am Technical Paper

39 39 Extending HTML in a Principled Way with Displets Other extensions: Multi-way links Graphs Issues: How does this fit in with XML? How does this fit in with the HTML Math work, which proposes using Java to display Maths output? Further Information: HyperNews/get/PAPER155.html ~chchiu/displets.html

40 40 Towards a Multimedia World-Wide Web Information Retrieval Engine Paper that integrates searching for text with searching for images. Search for "baseball player" Select one of the images retrieved, and search for others similar to this one Give schematic drawing (as shown) Provide 3D visualisation of search results using VRML Find an image that looks like this will find Mickey Mouse from the Disney Web site Day 1 - 4 pm

41 41 Towards a Multimedia World-Wide Web Information Retrieval Engine The software is called AMORE. Prototype available at http://www.ccrl. See http://www6.nttlabs. com/HyperNews/ get/PAPER3.html Day 1 - 4 pm

42 42 Dynamic Reference Sifting: A Case Study Described Ahoy! - a Web application used for finding personal home pages based on recognition of likely hits from directory naming conventions. Day 1 - 4 pm See HyperNews/get/PAPER39.html and research/ahoy

43 43 Parasite: Mining Structural Information on the Web Based on heuristic assumptions including: Hypertext Linking A linked page is likely to be on the same topic as the original page (esp. for Yahoo type resources) Directory Structure A URL containing a directory below a personal home page (PHP) is likely to be authored by the person identified in the PHP Page Structure Links "near" each other on a page are likely to have similar topics Day 1 - 4 pm

44 44 Parasite: Mining Structural Information on the Web Used these assumptions to propose applications for finding: moved pages related pages people Comments Brute strength approach This and preceding paper (on Ahoy!) show importance of directory naming conventions (directory names provide metadata - what can we guess from the URL ) Day 1 - 4 pm

45 45 WebCutter: A System for Dynamic and Tailorable Site Mapping Paper on IBM/Lotus product for website visualisation Implemented in Java Map generated on the fly Map can be edited by end user (to define user's view of web site) Day 3 - 2 pm get/PAPER40.html

46 46 WebQuery Paper on various visualisation techniques for searching. Based on structural information to find "hot spots" get/PAPER96.html Day 3 - 2 pm

47 47 Transforming Command-Line Driven Systems to Web Applications This paper described work which used Java to provide access to a legacy command line application (a monolithic Fortran 77 program) on the Web: Input to application via Java form Output in Java applet window Commercial product available soon Day 3 - 2 pm /HyperNews/get/PAPER41. html

48 48 Responsive Interaction for a Large Web Application The Meteor Shower Architecture in the WebWriter II Editor An HTML authoring tool with server and client side processing. Makes use of frames. Uses to define flashing cursor Day 3 - 2 pm HyperNews/get/PAPER86.html

49 49 Seamless Integration of Interactive Forms into the Web This paper described limitations of existing forms on the Web and described how Dynamic Forms would overcome these limitations. Dynamic Forms is based on Java. But what about W3C work on HTML (new DOM and Forms specs)? HyperNews/get/PAPER83.html

50 50 Plenary Talk All Authored Works Online: A Global Infrastructure for Universal Access to Information Raj Reddy, Dean of the School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon spoke on the Universal Library project - when "All Authored Works of the Human Race will be available to anyone in the world instantaneously". His talk is available at aaw.html

51 51 Web Design Panel Session Good Web Design Panel Session A very popular session on Web design Panelists included Jakob Neilson (Sun), David Seigel (a leading web designer and author of the 1 bit clear GIF used to provide spacing), Cathy Gill (HTML Writer's Guild) and others Strong disagreements between the design community (David Seigel) and the structuralist community (Jakon Neilson)

52 52 What is Good Web Design? What is Good Design? No frames - Jakob Neilson's response (see his paper on 10 top mistakes in web design) The design must be related to a user's tasks A well-designed site downloads quickly A good design doesn't break browsers No gratuitous backgrounds or animation Should be internally consistent Should be externally consistent in use of navigation (Jakob Neilson's comments on need for standard navigational aids such as not changing colours of hypertext links) Variety in navigational aids (David Siegel's response)

53 53 Bad Web Design? There was much disagreement over the Seigel "hack" illustrated Image on the next page stored in a 1 pixel by 1 pixel The image is downloaded while main image is being examined Moving to the next image it appears to load quickly "Neat trick" - David Seigel "Hack", "future maintenance problems", "no semantics" image4.gif

54 54 Other Papers The Proceedings contains papers on: Beyond HTML Multidimensional Web Search Searching Heterogeneous Sources Strategies for Resource Location Learning User Preferences Usability Issues Counting on the Web Site Mapping and Syntactic Analysis Information Access Automatic Interface Generation Database Query Techniques Caching Embedded Systems Highly Configurable Web Services Distributed Servers Accessibility Using Audio Real Time Video Real Time Audio Security and Payment

55 55 Conclusions The hit of the conference was XML Java was the hit two years ago - now it's accepted as the language of the Web W3C are facilitating developments of web protocols Closed nature of W3C standardisation creates uncertainty but seems needed following problems with over standardisation (e.g. HTML 3.0)

56 56 Challenges The rapid development of the web poses various challenges for the community: Deploying new facilities in a timely manner Choosing the winners Spotting the winners Minimising future web re-engineering How can the community address these challenges: Institutionally Regionally Nationally Internationally

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