2 WHAT IS TECHNIQUE?A technique is implementational which actually takes place in a classroom.According to Edward Anthony’s model, technique is the level at which classroom procedures are described.At the level of procedure, technique explains how tasks and activities are integrated into lessons.
3 Why do teachers use techniques in the classroom? Teachers use techniques as a tool for teaching. Teachers can achieve the goals of the lesson by the careful delivery of techniques. Using techniques that appeal to the interests of students can promote the success of the class.
4 TYPES OF TECHNİQUES Controlled techniques TECHNİQUES Semi- Free
5 TYPES OF TECHNIQUESControlled techniques: They are mostly teacher centered. Both the teacher and students know what they will do during the activities.Semi-Controlled techniques: The teacher interferes only when necessary.Free techniques: The teacher doesn’t direct the students are free in their activities.
6 GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD Translation of a literary passage:The translation may be written or spoken or both.The class focuses on vocabulary and grammatical structures.Students should not translate idioms and like the literary, but rather their understanding of the meaning is important.
7 GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD Reading comprehension questions:There are three kinds of group of questions:First group of questions, students ask for information contained within the reading passage.Second group of questions, students will have to make inferences from the passage.Third group of questions, students are required to relate the passage to their own experience.
8 GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD Anonyms/Synonyms:Students might be asked to find anonyms or synonyms in the passage.Students might be asked to define a set of words based on their understanding in the passage.Students might be asked to work with the vocabulary of the passage.
9 GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD Cognates: (similar spelling and sound patterns that correspond in L1/L2.)Students are taught to recognize cognates in the passage.Students are asked to memorize cognate words and their meaning in target language.
10 GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD Deductive application of rule:Grammar rules are presented with examples.Later students are asked to apply grammar rules to some different examples.
11 GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD Fill-in-the-blanks:Students are given a serios of sentences with words missing.They fill in the blanks with new vocabulary idioms or with items of a particular grammar type such as prepositions or verbs with different tenses.
12 GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD Memorization:Students are given lists of target language vocabulary words and their native language equivalents.Students are asked to memorize the given words.Students are also required to memorize grammatical rules and grammatical paradigms such as conjugations.
13 GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD Use words in sentences:Students make up sentences in which they use new words.
14 GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD Composition:The teacher gives the students a topic to write about in the target language.The topic is based upon some aspect of the reading passage of the lesson.
15 THE DIRECT METHOD Reading aloud: Students take turns reading sections of a passage or dialog out loud.Teachers make the meaning of the section clear with gestures, pictures, realia…
16 THE DIRECT METHOD Question and answer exercise: Students are asked question and answer in full sentences.
17 THE DIRECT METHOD Getting students to self-correct: Students make a choice between what they said and an alternative answer.Teachers help students correct themselves.
18 THE DIRECT METHOD Conversation practice: Fill-in-the-blank exercise: The teacher asks students a number of questions in the target language.These questions can be individual.Fill-in-the-blank exercise:Little – a little – enough1-There weren’t ___________ chairs in the hall, so some of the members had to stand up for the whole meeting2-I think we can invest our money in this company. There`s ___________ risk of losing it.3- There`s __________ cake on a plate in the kitchen, Joe. You can eat it with your tea.
19 THE DIRECT METHOD Dictation: The teacher read the passage three times. *At first at a normal speed,*Second time phrase by phrase and pausing,*The last time at a normal speed again.
20 THE DIRECT METHOD Map drawing: Students are given a map with geographical features unnamed.Teacher give directions to students.
21 THE DIRECT METHOD Paragraph writing: Students are asked to write a paragraph in their own words.
22 THE ORAL APPROACH AND SLT Listening Practice:The teacher obtains his student’s attention and repeats.Choral Imitation:Students all together or in large groups repeat what the teacher has said.Individual Imitation:The teacher asks several individual students to repeat the model.
23 THE ORAL APPROACH AND SLT Isolation:The teacher isolates sounds, words, or groups of words which cause trouble.Building up to a new model:The teacher gets students to ask and answer questions using patterns.
24 THE ORAL APPROACH AND SLT Elicitation:The teacher using mime, prompt words, gestures, etc. to ask questions.Substitution Drilling:The teacher uses cue words (words, pictures, numbers, names, etc.)
25 THE ORAL APPROACH AND SLT Question-Answer Drilling:All the students practice asking and answering the new question form.Correction:If there are mistakes or errors, the teacher invites the students correct them.
26 THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD Dialog memorization:Dialogs or short conversations between two people are often used in lesson.In this method, certain sentence patterns and grammar points are included within the dialog.
27 THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD Backward build-up (expansion) drill:This drill is used when a long line of a dialog is giving students trouble.The teacher breaks down the line into several parts.
28 THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD Repetition drill:Students repeat the teacher’s model as accurately and as quickly as possible to learn the lines of the dialog.
29 THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD Chain drill:The teacher begins the chain by greeting particular student, or asking him a question.It allows some controlled communication, even though it is limited.
30 THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD Single-slot substitution drill:The teacher says a line from the dialog.The students repeat the line, substituting the cue into the line in its proper place.Multiple-slot substitution drill:The teacher gives cue phrases that fit into different slots in the dialog line.The students must recognize what part of speech each cue is.
31 THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD Transformation drill:The teacher gives students a certain kind of sentence pattern.Students are asked to transform a sentence into a negative sentence.Question-and-answer drill:This drill gives students practice with answering questions.
32 THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD Use of minimal pairs:The teacher works with pairs of words which differ in only one sound.Students are first asked to difference between the two words and later to be able to say the two words.
33 THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD Complete the dialog:Selected words are erases from a dialog.Students complete the dialog by filling the blanks with the missing words.e.g. Lucy: I hear Mary got the first prize in that paintingcompetition.Rose: …Lucy: Did she really?Rose: Yes she did. I saw her painting and it really was good.
34 THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD Grammar game:The games are designed to get students to practice a grammar point within a context.Students are able to express themselves.
35 TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE Using commands to direct behaviorTeacher gives commands to classTo clarify meaning, teacher performs the actions with class.Later, teacher let perform the actions alone.
36 TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE Role Rehearsal:Students commands to their teachers or classmates.This encourages students to speak.
37 TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE For example:Take out penTake out a piece of paperWrite a letter (imagery)Fold the letterPut it in an envelopeSeal the envelopWrite address on the envelop.Put stamp on the envelopMail the letter.Action Sequence:The more students learn target language, the longer connections can be given.
38 Silent WaySound-color chartEach color symbolizes one sound.
39 Silent Way Teacher is silence: Peer correction: It’s important to be cooperative than competitive.Self-correction:
40 Silent Way Word chart: Teacher points on the chart. Colors represent the same sounds.
42 Silent Way Structured feedback: Students listen each other and learn form each other.
43 Community Language Learning Tape recording students conversations:Students native language is their common language of the group.In multi-lingual groups students can use gestures to get their meaning across.The conversation of students is recorded in the target language.
44 Community Language Learning Transcription:Students conversation in the target language is transcript by the teacher.Each student translate his or her utterances in their native language and teacher copy them.
45 Community Language Learning Reflection on experience:Students reflect on how they feel about the language learning experience.Teacher shows understanding of their response.
46 Community Language Learning Reflective listening:Students relax and listen their own voice speaking in the target language on the tape.Teacher may read the transcript,Students may mouth the words as teacher reads transcript.
47 Community Language Learning Human computer:The student chooses some parts to practice pronunciation.The student say the word in the control of teacher.Teacher repeats the word as much as student wants.
48 Community Language Learning Small group tasks:Students in a small group are asked to make new sentences with the words on transcript.The group share sentences with class.Later students work in pairs to make sentences with the different verb conjunctions.
49 Suggestopedia Classroom set-up: Peripheral learning: With posters-which contains grammatical structures- on the wall students learn effortlessly.
50 Suggestopedia Positive suggestion: Choose a new identity: Role-play: Direct suggestionIndirect suggestionChoose a new identity:Role-play:
51 Suggestopedia First concert: Second concert: Teacher reads a dialog to call students attention to some particular grammar pointsSecond concert:Teacher simply reads dialog.
52 Suggestopedia Primary activation: The students reread the target language dialog out loud.
53 Suggestopedia Creative adaptation: This technique helps students to learn new metarials and use them spontaniously.The aim is to create communication rather than form of linguistic messages
54 WHOLE LANGUAGE Individual and small group reading and writing: The students read literature and they read from the authentic materials.The students create a story, they write letters etc.
55 WHOLE LANGUAGE Ungraded dialogue journals: The teacher respond regularly to what students write.Writing portfolios/conferences/ a story:The students write their own experiences in a story and put them into portfolios. While they are writing, they should think through and list what strategies, background knowledge, and special resources are needed to reproduce.
56 MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES Logical/mathematical:the ability to use numbers effectively, to see abstract patterns and to reason well.Visual/spatial:the ability to orient oneself in the environment, to create mental images, and a sensitivity to shape, size, color.
57 MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES Body/kinesthetic:the ability to use one’s body to express oneself and to solve problems.Musical/rhythmic:an ability to recognize tonal patterns and a sensitivity to rhythm, pitch, melody.
58 MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES Interpersonal:the ability to understand another person’s moods, feelings, motivations, and intensions.Intrapersonal:the ability to understand oneself and to practice self-discipline.Verbal/linguistic:the ability to use language effectively and creatively.
59 NEUROLINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING Teacher should work with students not against them.
60 LEXICAL APPROACHThe collocation of vocabulary teaching activities.
61 COMPETENCY-BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING Knowledge and learning competencies:Oral competencies:Reading competencies:Writing competencies:
62 Communicative Language Teaching Scramble sentences:Students are given a passage in which the sentences are in a scrambled order.They are told to unscramble the sentences so that the sentences are restored in their original order.
63 Communicative Language Teaching Language game:It is kind of prediction game.During game there must be information gap.The speaker makes prediction and gets feedback from his group members.Finally tries to make comprehensible prediction.
64 Communicative Language Teaching Picture strip story:Students are given a story containing a picture.Teacher wants students to predict how the second picture can be appropriate to story.
66 The Natural Approach Command-based activities from TPR Direct Method activities which contains mime, gesture and context are used to elicit question and answerSituation-based activitiesGroup work activities identical to CLT.
67 COOPERATIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING Three-step interviewRoundtableThink-pair-shareSolve-pair-shareNumbered heads
68 TASK-BASED LANGUAGE LEARNING Jigsaw Tasks:Learners form a whole from different information parts.Information Gap Tasks:In order to complete a task, members of the group negotiate and find out each others’ information.
69 TASK-BASED LANGUAGE LEARNING Problem Solving Tasks:Students solve a problem with a set of information.Decision Making Tasks:By means of negotiation and discussion students decide on an outcome given with a problem.Opinion Exchange Tasks:Learners exchange their ideas, but not to reach an agreement.
70 Content-Based Instruction There are a number of description activity types in CBI.Language skill improvementVocabulary buildingDiscourse organizationCommunicative interactionStudy skillsSynthesis of content materials and grammar