Daily Objectives 1. Discuss how an intellectual revival led to the formation of universities 2. Explain how, in the High Middle Ages, new technical innovations made it possible to build Gothic cathedrals, which are on of the great artistic triumphs of this age.
I. Rise of Universities University, “corporation” or guild
A. The First Universities Bologna, the first European university Given a charter – a document giving it the right to govern its own affairs University of Paris Oxford, university started in England
B. University Curricula Liberal arts curriculum (grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music & astronomy) Lecture, “to read” *Oral examination *Theology, the study of religion & God
II. The Development of Scholasticism *Scholasticism, a medieval philosophical & theological system that tried to reconcile faith & reason (pg. 330) Harmonize Christian teachings with Greek philosophers Aristotle
II. The Development of Scholasticism Aristotle’s works upset many Christians Aristotle pushed rational thought – not by faith Some of his ideas contradicted the teachings of the Church
II. The Development of Scholasticism Saint Thomas Aquinas tried to reconcile Aristotle with the doctrines of Christianity Summa of Theology, asked “Does God exist”
III. Vernacular Literature *Vernacular, the language of everyday speech in a particular region (pg. 331) chanson de geste, or heroic epic *Song of Roland
IV. Architecture Romanesque, used the construction of churches in the late Roman Empire Replaced the flat wooden roof with a long round stone arched structure vault (called a barrel vault)
Daily Objectives 1. Identify the overwhelming number of disastrous forces that challenged Europe in the 14th century. 2. Explain how European rulers reestablished the centralized power of monarchial governments.
B. Social & Economic Consequences Sent by God as a punishment *Anti-Semitism – hostility toward Jews Jews were accused of causing the plague *Trade declined, shortage of workers caused a dramatic rise in the price of labor
A. The War Begins King Philip VI of France seized Gascony in 1337 King Edward III of England declared war on Philip *Turning point in warfare: it was peasant soldiers, not knights who own the chief battles
A. The War Begins Both sides used heavily armed noble cavalry English foot soldiers were armed with pikes, or heavy spears and longbows
B. Crecy & Agincourt First major battle of the Hundred Years’ War occurred in 1346 at Crecy, the English were victorious Henry V, defeats the French at the battle of Agincourt English were now masters of northern France
C. Joan of Arc *Joan of Arc, a French peasant woman inspired the French troops with her faith at the battle of Orleans Later condemned to death as a heretic
IV. Political Recovery new monarchies, France, England and Spain
A. Western Europe Taille – an annual direct tax, usually on land or property – as a permanent tax imposed by royal authority Henry VII (England) Isabella & Ferdinand (Spain)
A. Western Europe Two of the strongest kingdoms were Aragon and Castile Isabella of Castile & Ferdinand of Aragon (Spain) They expel the Jews from Spain Muslims from her kingdom *Known as the “most Catholic monarchs”
B. Central & Eastern Europe German emperors failed to develop strong monarchial authority Hundreds of independent states
Chapter Summary The Middle Ages was a period marked by cultural diffusion, innovation, and conflict.
People would not know whom to believe; how could two or three popes each be an absolute authority? People might not accept either pope. The clergy were corrupt and too fond of worldly power and wealth.