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Methods & Approaches in Language Teaching (1)

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Presentation on theme: "Methods & Approaches in Language Teaching (1)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Methods & Approaches in Language Teaching (1)
Zhang Lu Shanghai Normal University

2 Task 1 Discuss in the group of four, what do
you think are the differences between the concepts of method and approach?

3 Generally speaking, the two terms are often used interchangeably
Generally speaking, the two terms are often used interchangeably. But in English language teaching context, they are identified as two different terminologies. In real practice, approach is of the theory of learning language including learning process. Method usually refers to a way, or a technique, or process of doing things. Method of learning emphasizes the teaching process while approach focuses on both the teaching and the learning process.

4 Teaching Methods & Approaches
1. The Grammar/Translation Method 2. The Direct Method The Audio-Lingual Method The Communicative Approach

5 Grammar – Translation Method (1)
It used to be & still is the most popular teaching method. Features: Abstract rules about grammar Focus on translation Memorization/rote - learning Over use of L1 Dominance of the written form. Tests or sentences to practice grammatical items.

6 Grammar-Translation Method (2)
Advantages: Large class can be taught Teachers with low level of oral ability can be used This approach can be used at all levels Learners can use coursebook on their own Disadvantages: Content of materials often boring and of little interest to learners Inappropriate for young learners who can not read much Exposure to authentic spoken language absent

7 Direct Method (1) Never List Always list
It appeared as a reaction to the grammar- translation method in the early years of 20th century. Never List Always list NEVER translate ALWAYS demonstrate NEVER explain ALWAYS act NEVER make a speech ALWAYS ask questions NEVER imitate mistake ALWAYS correct NEVER use the book ALWAYS use your lesson plan NEVER go too fast ALWAYS keep to the learners’ pace NEVER speak too slowly ALWAYS speak normally NEVER speak too loudly ALWAYS speak naturally

8 Direct Method (2) Features: Meaning conveyed through demonstration
“see-hear-say” Teacher replaces book as the model Accuracy in speaking & writing emphasized Speech dominates over writing Immersion in the target language Teaching through target language Grammar learnt inductively from examples Use of visual aids

9 Direct Method (3) Advantages: Disadvantages:
It gives the opportunity to speak in meaningful contexts. It encourages spontaneous speech by learners Lessons can be very lively in the early stages. Disadvantages: Small groups are normally required Difficult to provide enough variety of content & activity after a while. Teachers must be fluent speakers of the language.

10 Audio-Lingual Method (1)
Based on the psychological theory of Behaviorism (Stimulus – Response – Re- inforcement) Features: Language is structured into patterns to be learnt Habit formation central to language learning (stimulus-response-re-inforcement) Use of target language in classroom. No L1 to avoid interference. Need to memorise (“over-learn”) Primacy of speech over writing (hear-say-see-write) Grammar taught when language familiar Errors to be avoided to counter “wrong” habits

11 Audio-Lingual Method (2)
Advantages: Medium-sized classes can be used Much practice of listening & speaking Can be used at elementary and intermediate levels Learners can form grammatically-accurate language Disadvantages: Fluent & confident teachers needed Repetition can be very boring and meaningless Little exposure to spontaneous or authentic speech Reading writing are neglected & not treated as independent forms

12 The end

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