Presentation on theme: "Methods & Approaches in Language Teaching (1)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Methods & Approaches in Language Teaching (1) Zhang LuShanghai Normal University
2 Task 1 Discuss in the group of four, what do you think are the differences betweenthe concepts of method and approach?
3 Generally speaking, the two terms are often used interchangeably Generally speaking, the two terms are often used interchangeably. But in English language teaching context, they are identified as two different terminologies.In real practice, approach is of the theory of learning language including learning process.Method usually refers to a way, or a technique, or process of doing things.Method of learning emphasizes the teaching process while approach focuses on both the teaching and the learning process.
4 Teaching Methods & Approaches 1. The Grammar/Translation Method2. The Direct MethodThe Audio-Lingual MethodThe Communicative Approach
5 Grammar – Translation Method (1) It used to be & still is the most popularteaching method.Features:Abstract rules about grammarFocus on translationMemorization/rote - learningOver use of L1Dominance of the written form. Tests or sentences to practice grammatical items.
6 Grammar-Translation Method (2) Advantages:Large class can be taughtTeachers with low level of oral ability can be usedThis approach can be used at all levelsLearners can use coursebook on their ownDisadvantages:Content of materials often boring and of little interest to learnersInappropriate for young learners who can not read muchExposure to authentic spoken language absent
7 Direct Method (1) Never List Always list It appeared as a reaction to the grammar-translation method in the early years of20th century.Never List Always listNEVER translate ALWAYS demonstrateNEVER explain ALWAYS actNEVER make a speech ALWAYS ask questionsNEVER imitate mistake ALWAYS correctNEVER use the book ALWAYS use your lesson planNEVER go too fast ALWAYS keep to the learners’ paceNEVER speak too slowly ALWAYS speak normallyNEVER speak too loudly ALWAYS speak naturally
8 Direct Method (2) Features: Meaning conveyed through demonstration “see-hear-say”Teacher replaces book as the modelAccuracy in speaking & writing emphasizedSpeech dominates over writingImmersion in the target languageTeaching through target languageGrammar learnt inductively from examplesUse of visual aids
9 Direct Method (3) Advantages: Disadvantages: It gives the opportunity to speak in meaningful contexts.It encourages spontaneous speech by learnersLessons can be very lively in the early stages.Disadvantages:Small groups are normally requiredDifficult to provide enough variety of content & activity after a while.Teachers must be fluent speakers of the language.
10 Audio-Lingual Method (1) Based on the psychological theory ofBehaviorism (Stimulus – Response – Re-inforcement)Features:Language is structured into patterns to be learntHabit formation central to language learning (stimulus-response-re-inforcement)Use of target language in classroom. No L1 to avoid interference.Need to memorise (“over-learn”)Primacy of speech over writing (hear-say-see-write)Grammar taught when language familiarErrors to be avoided to counter “wrong” habits
11 Audio-Lingual Method (2) Advantages:Medium-sized classes can be usedMuch practice of listening & speakingCan be used at elementary and intermediate levelsLearners can form grammatically-accurate languageDisadvantages:Fluent & confident teachers neededRepetition can be very boring and meaninglessLittle exposure to spontaneous or authentic speechReading writing are neglected & not treated as independent forms