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Quantum Model of the Atom (p. 138-141) Read the text first Ch. 6.3 – Quantum Numbers

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Extra information for interested students zLouis de Broglie (1924) yApplied wave-particle theory to e - ye - exhibit wave properties QUANTIZED WAVELENGTHS

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A. Electrons as Waves QUANTIZED WAVELENGTHS

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A. Electrons as Waves EVIDENCE: DIFFRACTION PATTERNS ELECTRONS VISIBLE LIGHT

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Quantum Mechanics zHeisenberg Uncertainty Principle yImpossible to know both the velocity and position of an electron at the same time

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B. Quantum Mechanics zSchrödinger Wave Equation (1926) yfinite # of solutions quantized energy levels ydefines probability of finding an e - Take it easy, do not get shocked, we will cover this in Chemy 333, if you are a chemistry major student

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B. Quantum Mechanics Radial Distribution Curve Orbital zOrbital (“electron cloud”) yRegion in space where there is 90% probability of finding an e -

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C. Quantum Numbers UPPER LEVEL zFour Quantum Numbers: ySpecify the “address” of each electron in an atom

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C. Quantum Numbers 1. Principal Quantum Number ( n ) yEnergy level ySize of the orbital yn 2 = # of orbitals in the energy level

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C. Quantum Numbers s p d f 2. Angular Momentum Quantum # ( l ) yEnergy sublevel yShape of the orbital

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C. Quantum Numbers zn=# of sublevels per level zn 2 =# of orbitals per level zSublevel sets: 1 s, 3 p, 5 d, 7 f

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C. Quantum Numbers 3. Magnetic Quantum Number ( m l ) yOrientation of orbital Specifies the exact orbital within each sublevel

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C. Quantum Numbers pxpx pypy pzpz

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zOrbitals combine to form a spherical shape. 2s 2p z 2p y 2p x

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C. Quantum Numbers 4. Spin Quantum Number ( m s ) yElectron spin +½ or -½ yAn orbital can hold 2 electrons that spin in opposite directions.

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C. Quantum Numbers 1. Principal # 2. Ang. Mom. # 3. Magnetic # 4. Spin # energy level sublevel (s,p,d,f) orbital electron zPauli Exclusion Principle yNo two electrons in an atom can have the same 4 quantum numbers. yEach e - has a unique “address”:

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Feeling overwhelmed? Read Section 6.3

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