Marius and Sulla 107 BC General Gaius Marius was elected consul. He gave the poor jobs in the army and he paid them. Once they were discharged he promised them land. First time Rome had a professional army in which soldiers owed allegiance to their commander. Not to the republic.
88 BC The army that Gaius Marius built was used against him. General Lucius Cornelius Sulla convinced his legions to capture Rome and send Marius into exile. After 7 years of civil war Sulla appointed himself as dictator. The army was now so powerful that he was able to take power away from the Assembly of Tribes. (Violence Overtook Law) Marius and Sulla
In 70 BC General Gnaeus Pompey and Politician Marcus Lincinius Crassus were elected consuls. Pompey, Lincinius, and Julius Caesar formed a triumvirate in 60 BC. But this proved to be unstable Triumvirate – A group of three persons with equal power to control the government. The First Triumvirate
Caesar took military command in Gaul ( it was inhabited by the Celts). He conquered the Celts. Crassus was killed in 53 BC in battle Trying to prove he was also a great military leader. Pompey was afraid of Caesar so with the help of the Senate Caesar was ordered to leave his legions north of the Rubicon River and return to Rome. The First Triumvirate
According to a legend: Once Caesar arrived at the Rubicon River he saw an apparition that encouraged him to cross. He said to his troops “Let us accept this as a sign from the gods, and follow where they beckon, in vengeance on our double-dealing enemies. The die is cast.” The First Triumvirate
By crossing the Rubicon River, Caesar committed treason. This in turn started a civil war. Within 2 months Caesar had captured all Italy and driven Pompey and is allies out of the country. The civil war spread to the entire Mediterranean region. Caesar and his legions were hunting down their enemies and overwhelming Pompey’s armies. The First Triumvirate
In 45 BC Caesar took over the Roman government for life. His rule was like a monarch. Under his rule the government: ◦ Gave jobs to the unemployed, public land to the poor, and citizenship to people who lived in the provinces.
Julius Caesar Caesar added representatives from the provinces to the Senate.
Julius Caesar Many Romans believed that Caesar was a wise ruler who brought back order and peace. Others, considered him to be a tyrant who strived to end the republic and make himself king.
Julius Caesar In order to stop Caesar from destroying the republic, a group of senators (led by Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius) assassinated Caesar on March 15, 44 BC.
End of the Republic After Caesar was assassinated his 18 year old grandnephew Octavian joined forces with Marc Antony and Marcus Lepidus. Antony and Lepidus were two of Caesar’s top government officers.
End of the Republic Octavian, Marc Antony, and Marcus Lepidus made a second triumvirate. This triumvirate defeated Caesars’s assassins in 42 BC They condemned to death hundreds of senators and thousands of equites
End of the Republic These three generals (Octavian, Marc Antony, and Marcus Lepidus) divided the Roman world among themselves.
End of the Republic Octavian took command in Italy and the west. Antony ruled in Greece and the east. Lepidus controlled North Africa