Movement of Ocean Water Oceans are always in constant movement caused by: Variations in Density Wind
Specific Heat of Water Water has a high specific heat (4.184 J/g*C) It takes a lot of energy to heat up water and cool it down
Density Currents Density Currents-Ocean Currents that move due to differences in density Global Conveyor Belt
Ocean Currents Upwelling Currents – Occur when wind moves seawater at the surface and new water from below replaces it
Critical Thinking #1 How might upwelling currents be beneficial to life in the ocean? Explain.
Coriolis Effect Coriolis Effect-The rotation of the Earth results in wind blowing in a circular motion Wind blows to the right in the Northern Hemisphere Wind blows to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
Gyres Gyres are large circular current systems that flow from north to south and are caused by the Coriolis Effect 5 major gyres: 2 in the Pacific Ocean 2 in the Atlantic Ocean 1 in the Indian Ocean
Surface Currents Surface Currents are currents that affect the upper most portions of the surface Surface Currents that flow towards the equator generally bring cold water Surface Currents that flow away from the equator generally bring warm water
Ocean Currents Deep Currents – Move slowly beneath surface, primarily caused by differing water densities
Critical Thinking #2 What processes might cause changes in density that form deep ocean currents?
Climate Impact Coastal Areas: Have a high amount of water vapor in the air. Summer will be cooler Winters will be warmer
Climate Impact In cities located further from the coast there is less water vapor in the air Summers will be very hot Winters will be very cold
Tides Tides – Daily changes in the level of the ocean surface 2 high tides and 2 low tides each day caused by gravitational pull of primarily the moon, but also the sun
High Tides and Low Tides High (Flood) Tides – Occur on side of Earth facing and opposite the moon, due to both gravity facing and centrifugal force opposite Low (Ebb) Tides – Occur on sides halfway between the moon
Spring Tides and Neap Tides Neap Tides = Small tidal range, when moon and sun are perpendicular Spring Tides = Highest and lowest tides, when moon and sun align
Critical Thinking #3 Why are spring tides stronger than neap tides? Explain.