Presentation on theme: "Unit 5-A New Country Lesson 27: Louisiana Purchase."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 5-A New Country Lesson 27: Louisiana Purchase
Review The early years for the United States under the Constitution were difficult due to the many challenges of a young government. The nation divided into two political parties which led to many changes in the nation. As the country tries to solve many of its issues, it also begins to have struggles with France and England.
Western Movement In the early 1800s, a large amount of Americans moved west in search of land and adventure. Areas over the Appalachian Mountains in Tennessee, Kentucky, and the Northwest Territory were the destinations for these pioneers. Most of the pioneers were farmers.
Westward Movement The pioneers would load their belongings into Conestoga wagons, sturdy vehicles with white canvas, and travel over muddy roads and through dense forests. The most important possessions for the pioneers were their rifle for protection and hunting and an ax to cut through the dense forests.
Louisiana Territory The area west of the Mississippi River, known as the Louisiana Territory was controlled by Spain. This large piece of land contained New Orleans to its south and extended west to the Rocky Mountains, with undefined northern borders.
Mississippi River Pioneers that settled along rivers that connected to the upper Mississippi River needed the large river to ship their crops to markets. The Spanish allowed Americans to use the entire river, including trade in New Orleans. Goods would be sent down to New Orleans and sent by ship to markets on the East Coast.
French Control of Louisiana In 1802 the Spanish suddenly stopped allowing Americans to move into or past New Orleans. Thomas Jefferson found out that Spain and France had made a secret agreement that gave the French control of the Louisiana Territory. This agreement posed a major threat for the United States.
French Threat France had a powerful leader named Napoleon Bonaparte, who had plans for empires in Europe and the Americas. Jefferson believed that French control of the Mississippi River could ruin American trade in the region.
Jefferson’s Plan Jefferson believed that France was also given control of Florida in their secret agreement with Spain. Jefferson gave permission to the American minister to France, Robert Livingston, to buy New Orleans and West Florida from the French for as much as $10 million.
Santo Domingo Napoleon realized he needed a strong naval base in the Caribbean where he could control an American empire. The French controlled island of Santo Domingo experienced a revolt by the enslaved Africans and other labors against the French plantation owners. The rebels declared the colony independent, and set up a new government.
Santo Domingo In 1802 Napoleon sent French troops to regain control of the island. They were able to capture the leader of the rebels, but were still not able to regain control of the island. By 1804, the French were forced out of Santo Domingo and the country regained its original name of Haiti.
Napoleon’s Plans Change Napoleon has little use for Louisiana without control of Santo Domingo. Napoleon was planning a war against England for control of Europe and needed money to finance it. The French believed they had something to sell that the United States might want.
Louisiana Purchase Charles de Talleyrand, the French foreign minister, informed American diplomats that the entire Louisiana Territory was for sale. Livingston and James Monroe, Jefferson’s new special representative, were surprised and knew that they weren’t authorized to accept the offer.
Louisiana Purchase The deal was too good to pass up, and after a few days of negotiating with the French, the two sides agreed on a sale price of $15 million. Jefferson was very happy with the deal, but was worried whether the purchase was legal. The Constitution did not mention anything about acquiring new territory.
Livingston wrote from Paris to tell Jefferson to hurry up and accept the deal before Napoleon changed his mind. Jefferson decided that the treaty-making laws gave him power to purchase the new territory. The Senate approved the purchase in October 1803, doubling the size of the United States.
Louisiana Purchase Jefferson wanted to know more about this land west of the Mississippi. He persuaded Congress to sponsor an expedition to explore the new territory. Jefferson wanted the expedition for scientific reasons, while Congress was interested in trade and future sites for forts.
Lewis and Clark Jefferson chose his personal secretary, Meriwether Lewis, to head the expedition. Lewis had joined the militia during the Whiskey Rebellion and had been in the army since. Lewis’ friend from the military, William Clark was chosen as co-leader of the expedition.
Lewis and Clark Both Lewis and Clark were knowledgeable in science and had done business with the Native Americans. They assembled a crew that included expert river men, gunsmiths, carpenters, scouts, and a cook. Two men of mixed Native American and French heritage were brought as interpreters.
The group left St. Louis in the spring of 1804 and slowly moved up the Missouri River. Lewis and Clark kept a journal of their voyage and made notes on what they saw and did. Along the way, they came across and interacted with Native American groups.
Lewis and Clark Sacagawea was a young Native American woman who joined the group as a guide. After traveling nearly 4,000 miles during an 18 month period, Lewis and Clark reached the Pacific Ocean. The group built Fort Clatsop and spent the winter in this location.
Lewis and Clark In the spring, both explorers took separate routes for their return east, in an attempt to explore more unknown land. They returned to St. Louis in September 1806 with valuable information on people, plants, animals, and the geography of the West. The journey inspired the nation about moving westward.
Zebulon Pike Before Lewis and Clark returned, Jefferson sent others to explore the new territory. Zebulon Pike led two expeditions through the upper Mississippi River valley into the region that is now known as Colorado. Pike found a snow-capped mountain he called Grand Peak, but today it is known as Pikes Peak.
Plans to Secede Many Federalists were against the Louisiana Purchase because they were afraid that the states that would come from this new territory would become Republican, which would take away power from the Federalists. Federalists from Massachusetts wanted to secede, or withdraw, from the Union and wanted New England to form a new “Northern Confederacy.”
Plans to Secede In order for the Northern Confederacy to work, New York would have to join New England. Needing a powerful friend from New York to back their plan, Massachusetts Federalists asked for support from Republican Aaron Burr. Republicans had turned on Burr after he refused to withdraw from the election of 1800.
Burr and Hamilton The Federalist gave Burr their support in 1804, when he ran for governor of New York. Hamilton had never trusted Burr, and was concerned about the rumors that Burr secretly agreed to lead New York out of the Union. Hamilton accused Burr of plotting treason.
Burr and Hamilton Burr blamed Hamilton for his losing the election for governor of New York, and challenged Hamilton to a duel. In July 1804, the two men met in New Jersey with rifles in hand. Hamilton who hated to duel pledged to not shoot, but Burr did fire and seriously wounded Hamilton, who died the next day. Burr fled the scene to avoid arrest.
Conclusion Thomas Jefferson believed in westward expansion because it would mean more people could own property. In 1802, diplomats from the United States purchased the Louisiana Territory from France, doubling the size of the country. Expeditions were sponsored by Congress to explore the new lands. Many Federalists opposed the Louisiana Purchase.
Assignments Answer the four review questions for this lesson. Research Lewis and Clark and find one example what they found for each of the following: people, plants, animals, and geography. You will have a Unit 5 test after you complete Lesson 32