Presentation on theme: "Cold War (1945-1991) -WWII Allies = US, UK, France, & USSR *Political & economic differences? -US bombing of Japan (1945) -1949: Russia became the 2 nd."— Presentation transcript:
Cold War (1945-1991) -WWII Allies = US, UK, France, & USSR *Political & economic differences? -US bombing of Japan (1945) -1949: Russia became the 2 nd country to enter the nuclear age
The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. THE FATHER OF COMMUNISM
Soviet Influence: -USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) *took control of Eastern European countries after WWII *took control of Eastern European countries after WWII *behind the “Iron Curtain” of communism *behind the “Iron Curtain” of communism
COLD WAR: The struggle between the U.S. & USSR following WWII that was determined by their differing political systems (democracy vs. totalitarianism) & differing economic systems (free market capitalism vs. command economy) Political conflict w/no open warfare betw. U.S. & USSR
Marshall Plan (1947-1951) (U.S. gave $13 billion) U.S. financial plan to rebuild Western Europe after WWII to prevent spread of communism COMECON = Council for Mutual Economic Assistance Soviet program to rebuild Eastern Europe
It is clear that the main element of any U.S. policy towards the Soviet Union must be that of a long term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies –US diplomat U.S.’ containment policy (1947): U.S. pledge to prevent communism from spreading
Berlin Airlift (June 1948-May 1949) First test of U.S. containment policy Soviet blockade of West Berlin Goal: to force W. Allies out of Berlin Allies airlifted food/supplies into Berlin Allies enforced their containment policy
NATO (1949): *North Atlantic Treaty Organization *mutual defense pact between Western allies Warsaw Pact (1955): *mutual defense pact of USSR countries *mutual defense pact of USSR countries *to protect against NATO
Indirect Conflicts (“proxy wars”): 1) Korean War (1950 – 1953) *divided betw. Communist North & Democratic South North & Democratic South *border = 38 th parallel *US won 2) Vietnam War (1964 – 1975) *US lost 3) Afghanistan (1979 – 1989) *USSR lost—BIG TIME!
Events that stressed US/USSR diplomatic relations in 1960s 1960—Soviets shot down U2 spy plane Francis Gary Powers 1961—Berlin Wall (to keep E. Germans in) 1962—Cuban Missile Crisis Closest we came to nuclear war!
The Nuclear Arms Race *Nuclear arms race: *competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare betw. U.S. & USSR *1952- U.S. detonated H-bomb *1953- Russians produce H-bomb *MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction) *deterrence for war? *Diplomacy: -when govts. negotiate & deal w/each other in peace deal w/each other in peace
The Space Race Space Race: competition betw. U.S. & USSR for supremacy in space exploration (mid-late 1900s) 1957- Soviets launched Sputnik (Threat to the US?) ICBMs: Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile Yuri Gagarin (1961)—first man in space Neil Armstrong (1969)—first man on the moon
Neil Armstrong: first man to step on the moon (July 1969)
Early 1980s: Reagan era in U.S. --Most tense times of Cold War since Cuba *Soviet downing of S. Korean airliner *U.S. invasion of Grenada *Boycotting of Olympics (US ‘80, USSR ‘84) *Soviet support of Sandinistas in Nicaragua 1981: US had 8,000 ICBMs & USSR had 7,000 *Defense spending (early 1980s) -U.S. = <10% of GDP -USSR = about 20% of GDP—SOCIAL EFFECTS?
The “Iron Curtain” falls! *Most $ went to military & space exploration -very little $ for consumer goods & services -aid decreased to satellite nations of E. Europe *Ronald Reagan’s speech at *Ronald Reagan’s speech at Brandenburg Gate, West Germany, Brandenburg Gate, West Germany, June 12, 1987 June 12, 1987
Mikhail Gorbechev (1985): Last Pres. USSR *sought reconciliation betw. U.S. & USSR *Perestroika: “restructuring” the economy & govt. *to introduce private enterprise *EX: McDonald’s in Moscow *Glasnost: “openness” w/ the West *discuss political/social issues *move towards democracy *freedom of speech & media
Late 1980s & early 1990s: one by one, eastern Euro. countries were granted self-determination collapse of Warsaw Pact 1989: Berlin Wall falls 1990: Germany is reunited Dec. 25, 1991: USSR collapses Cold War is over! USSR broke into 15 independent republics