Presentation on theme: "Objectives PSc.2.1.3 Compare physical and chemical properties of various types of matter."— Presentation transcript:
1 ObjectivesPSc.2.1.3Compare physical and chemical properties of various types of matter.
2 Physical PropertiesPhysical properties are characteristics that a sample of matter exhibits without any change in its identity.This property can be observed and measured without changing the identity of the substance.
3 Physical PropertiesExamples of the physical properties of a chunk of matter include its:boiling pointsolubilitydensitymelting pointmagneticcolorelectrical conductivityand physical state (solid, liquid or gas)
4 Physical PropertiesSalt is soluble in water.Water boils at 100°C.
5 Chemical PropertiesChemical Properties are properties of matter that describes a substance’s ability to participate in chemical reactions.A chemical property describes how a substance changes into a new substance, either by combining with other elements or breaking apart into new substances.
6 Chemical Properties Examples: Reactivity- the ability of a substance to combine chemically with another substance.Flammability- the ability of a substance to react in the presence of oxygen and burn when exposed to a flame.In general, the ability of a substance to react…to form…
7 Chemical PropertiesYou can observe chemical properties only in situations in which the identity of the substance changes.
8 Physical vs. Chemical Prop. Classify the following properties as either chemical or physical.red colordensityflammabilitysolubilityreacts with acid to form hydrogensupports combustionbitter tastemelting pointreacts with water to form a gasreacts with a base to form waterhardnessboiling pointcan neutralize a baselusterodor
9 Physical vs. Chemical Prop. Physical PropertiesRed colorDensitySolubilityBitter tasteMelting pointHardnessBoiling pointLusterOdorChemical PropertiesReacts with acid to form hydrogenSupports combustionReacts with water to form a gasReacts with a base to form waterCan neutralize a base
10 DensityDensity is the amount of matter (mass) contained in a unit of volume.Styrofoam has a low density or small mass per unit of volume.
12 m V D Density Solving Density Problems Cover the variable you are solving forIf you cover the top variable, multiple the bottom onesVmDTo solve for mass, multiply volume by density.
13 m V D Density Solving Density Problems Cover the variable you are solving forIf you cover a bottom variable, take the top variable and divide by the bottomVmDTo solve for volume, take mass and divide by density.
14 V D m = V x D V= 5.0 mL m = (19 g/mL) (5.0 mL) m = ? m = 95 g m Calculate the mass for an object having a density of 19 g/mL and a volume of 5.0 mL.GIVEN:D = 19 g/mLV= 5.0 mLm = ?WORK:m = V x Dm = (19 g/mL) (5.0 mL)m = 95 gVmD
15 V D V = m ÷ D V = (18 g) ÷ (12 g/mL) V = ? V = 1.5 mL m m = 18 g Calculate the volume for an object having a mass of 18 g and a density of 12 g/mL.GIVEN:m = 18 gD = 12 g/mLV = ?WORK:V = m ÷ DV = (18 g) ÷ (12 g/mL)V = 1.5 mLVmD
16 Density Solve the following density problems. 1. The density of sugar is g/cm3. Calculate the mass of sugar in 15.0 mL.(1 mL = 1 cm3)23.9 g
17 Density2. The density of helium is g/L. Calculate the volume of helium that has a mass of 23.5 g.132 L
18 Density3. A g sample of gold has a volume of cm3. Calculate the density of gold.19.3 g/cm3
19 Density4. Balsa wood has a density of 0.12 g/cm3. What is the mass of a sample of balsa wood if its volume is 134 cm3?16 g
20 Density5. The density of ice at 0 °C is g/cm3. Calculate the volume of 145 g of ice.158 cm3
21 Quiz Melting point Boiling point Density Reactivity Flammability The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid.Ability of a substance to burn in the presence of oxygen.Ability of a substance to combine chemically with another substance.Mass per unit volume of a substance.Melting pointBoiling pointDensityReactivityFlammability