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I can identify the characteristics needed in order to be considered a mineral.

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Presentation on theme: "I can identify the characteristics needed in order to be considered a mineral."— Presentation transcript:


2 I can identify the characteristics needed in order to be considered a mineral.

3 The Lithosphere: A thin layer of solid rock that surrounds the earth. T he lithosphere is divided into 3 parts: the least dense continental crust, then the oceanic crust and finally, the rigid mantle. Oxygen and silicon are the most abundant elements in the crust. What are the two most abundant elements in the crust by mass? (see ESRT chart page 1) All of this information can be found on page 10 of your Earth Science Reference Tables

4 What is a Mineral? To be considered a mineral, the object MUST possess all 5 of the following characteristics… There’s a list after the next few slides

5 Minerals must - Occur naturally

6 Minerals must be - Inorganic - not living and not formed from anything that was once living

7 Be a solid at room temperature Minerals must -

8 Have a Definite chemical composition (elements are combined in a definite proportion) Minerals must -

9 Crystal structure due to the internal arrangement of atoms (atoms inside are arranged in an orderly pattern) Minerals must have a -

10 Minerals are: 1. Naturally occurring (not man made) 2. Inorganic (not made from living things) 3. Solid at room temperature 4. Have a specific chemical composition 5. Have a distinct crystal structure

11 A mineral’s properties are determined by the internal arrangement of its atoms. Both graphite and diamond are made entirely of carbon atoms, but their atoms are arranged quite differently.

12 The _________________ ______________________ (1 silicon, 4 oxygen) is the building block of ALL silicate minerals! Silica Tetrahedra

13 Mineral Properties 1- Color8- Density 2- Luster9- Specific Gravity 3- Streak10- Magnetism 4- Hardness11- Reaction to acid 5- Cleavage 12- Taste 6- Fracture13- Fluorescence 7- Crystal Form/Shape14- Double Refraction

14 Minerals can be identified by their physical and chemical properties: Color Hardness Streak Luster Cleavage/ Fracture Specific Gravity Special Properties On the next set of slides, try defining each property of mineral identification.

15 Tim and Moby…. Mineral Identification

16 Color: The actual color of the mineral.

17 Color is not good for identifying because some minerals come in many colors. All these minerals are quartz!


19 Hardness: Tests how a mineral can be scratched by another object. This is done by using the MOH’S Hardness Scale HARDNESS- minerals resistance to being scratched.

20 Hardness tests: Fingernail: …………...hardness 2.5 Copper penny: ……….hardness 3.5 Iron nail: …………….hardness 4.5 Glass plate: …………. hardness 5.5

21 1. Talc 2. Gypsum 3. Calcite 4. Fluorite 5. Apatite 6. Feldspar 7. Quartz 8. Topaz 9. Corundum 10. DiamondTalcGypsumCalciteFluoriteApatiteFeldsparQuartzTopazCorundumDiamond Moh’s Scale

22 Streak: The color left on a streak plate when a mineral is rubbed on it..

23 Luster: Shows how shiny a mineral is. It is considered metallic if it shines like metal. MetallicNon-Metallic

24 Fracture : If a mineral breaks unevenly or splinters it shows fracture. Hematite breaks unevenly.


26 Cleavage : If a mineral breaks along a specific plane it has cleavage. Biotite splits in sheets along flat planes and shows cleavage..








34 Specific Gravity: This is the density of a mineral. Iron has a higher density than Talc.

35 Special Properties: Some minerals have unique properties that help in identification.

36 Double Refraction: Splits light to show a double image.

37 Acid Soluble: Dissolves in acid.

38 Magnetic: Shows magnetic properties.

39 Native Minerals – minerals that are made of only one element. Examples: Graphite Sulfur Gold Diamond

40 Did You Know

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