I can identify the characteristics needed in order to be considered a mineral.
The Lithosphere: A thin layer of solid rock that surrounds the earth. T he lithosphere is divided into 3 parts: the least dense continental crust, then the oceanic crust and finally, the rigid mantle. Oxygen and silicon are the most abundant elements in the crust. What are the two most abundant elements in the crust by mass? (see ESRT chart page 1) All of this information can be found on page 10 of your Earth Science Reference Tables
What is a Mineral? To be considered a mineral, the object MUST possess all 5 of the following characteristics… There’s a list after the next few slides
Have a Definite chemical composition (elements are combined in a definite proportion) Minerals must -
Crystal structure due to the internal arrangement of atoms (atoms inside are arranged in an orderly pattern) Minerals must have a -
Minerals are: 1. Naturally occurring (not man made) 2. Inorganic (not made from living things) 3. Solid at room temperature 4. Have a specific chemical composition 5. Have a distinct crystal structure
A mineral’s properties are determined by the internal arrangement of its atoms. Both graphite and diamond are made entirely of carbon atoms, but their atoms are arranged quite differently.
The _________________ ______________________ (1 silicon, 4 oxygen) is the building block of ALL silicate minerals! Silica Tetrahedra
Mineral Properties 1- Color8- Density 2- Luster9- Specific Gravity 3- Streak10- Magnetism 4- Hardness11- Reaction to acid 5- Cleavage 12- Taste 6- Fracture13- Fluorescence 7- Crystal Form/Shape14- Double Refraction
Minerals can be identified by their physical and chemical properties: Color Hardness Streak Luster Cleavage/ Fracture Specific Gravity Special Properties On the next set of slides, try defining each property of mineral identification.