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RISKY SHIFT: LAB REPORT WRITE-UP Week 7 Practical

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**SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS**

RISKY SHIFT WEEK 7 PRACTICAL LECTURE PRACTICAL WEEK 1 NO LECTURE NO PRACTICAL WEEK 2 NONPARAMETRICS 1 1ST PRACTICAL WEEK 3 NONPARAMETRICS 2 1ST ANALYSIS WEEK 4 1ST ANALYSIS (BY HAND) WEEK 5 SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS 2ND PRACTICAL WEEK 6 HYPOTHESIS TESTING 2ND ANALYSIS WEEK 7 RELATED T-TEST 2ND ANALYSIS (BY HAND) WEEK 8 INDEPENDENT T-TEST 3RD PRACTICAL WEEK 9 INDEPENDENT ANOVA 3RD ANALYSIS WEEK 10 DEPENDENT ANOVA NO PRACTICAL

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**BY THE END OF THE SESSION, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:**

RISKY SHIFT LEARNING OUTCOMES BY THE END OF THE SESSION, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: Understand the way in which the practical reports will be marked and what you have to do to do well! Learn to calculate the Friedman and Wilcoxon test by hand. Clarify any additional problems that you may have regarding this lab report with your friendly neighbourhood demonstrators.

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**2 12 20 20 20 20 6 IV and DV included, precise, concise**

RISKY SHIFT PRACTICAL WRITE-UP 2 IV and DV included, precise, concise TITLE 12 Maximum 150 words, summary of all sections ABSTRACT 20 Clear structure leading to experimental rationale INTRODUCTION Evidence of extra reading, beyond the handouts 20 METHOD Sufficient information to replicate the study Participants, materials, design, procedure 20 Clear and logical descriptive and inferential stats RESULTS Well designed figures related to the findings 20 Summary of main results, relating to introduction DISCUSSION Evaluation of study, suggestions for future 6 REFERENCES APA formatted, consistent with references in text APPENDICES Handouts, SPSS printouts, workings out…

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RISKY SHIFT REMINDER: FRIEDMAN

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**You will need to attach the completed worksheet to your lab report.**

RISKY SHIFT FRIEDMAN BY HAND First you should complete the “How to carry out a Friedman Test” worksheet. We will go through this with you. For ease, you will be working with a small data set rather than the Risky Shift data set. You will need to attach the completed worksheet to your lab report.

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**STEP 1: Rank each participant's scores individually**

RISKY SHIFT FRIEDMAN BY HAND STEP 1: Rank each participant's scores individually Participant Cond 1 RANK Cond 2 Cond 3 1 4.6 5 3.4 2 6.8 5.0 3 6.6 4 5.8 4.2 5.4 6 6.2 7 7.0 8

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**STEP 1: Rank each participant's scores individually**

RISKY SHIFT FRIEDMAN BY HAND STEP 1: Rank each participant's scores individually Participant Cond 1 RANK Cond 2 Cond 3 1 4.6 2 5 3 3.4 6.8 1.5 5.0 6.6 4 5.8 4.2 5.4 6 6.2 7 7.0 8 2.5

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**STEP 2: Calculate the rank total for each condition**

RISKY SHIFT FRIEDMAN BY HAND STEP 2: Calculate the rank total for each condition Participant Cond 1 RANK Cond 2 Cond 3 1 4.6 2 5 3 3.4 6.8 1.5 5.0 6.6 4 5.8 4.2 5.4 6 6.2 7 7.0 8 2.5 Tc1 = Tc2 = Tc3 =

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**STEP 2: Calculate the rank total for each condition**

RISKY SHIFT FRIEDMAN BY HAND STEP 2: Calculate the rank total for each condition Participant Cond 1 RANK Cond 2 Cond 3 1 4.6 2 5 3 3.4 6.8 1.5 5.0 6.6 4 5.8 4.2 5.4 6 6.2 7 7.0 8 2.5 Tc1 = 22.5 Tc2 = 14 Tc3 = 11.5

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**STEP 3: Square the rank totals and add them together**

RISKY SHIFT FRIEDMAN BY HAND STEP 3: Square the rank totals and add them together Participant Cond 1 RANK Cond 2 Cond 3 1 4.6 2 5 3 3.4 6.8 1.5 5.0 6.6 4 5.8 4.2 5.4 6 6.2 7 7.0 8 2.5 Tc1 = 22.5 Tc2 = 14 Tc3 = 11.5 Tc1² = Tc2² = Tc3² = ƩTc² =

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**STEP 3: Square the rank totals and add them together**

RISKY SHIFT FRIEDMAN BY HAND STEP 3: Square the rank totals and add them together Participant Cond 1 RANK Cond 2 Cond 3 1 4.6 2 5 3 3.4 6.8 1.5 5.0 6.6 4 5.8 4.2 5.4 6 6.2 7 7.0 8 2.5 Tc1 = 22.5 Tc2 = 14 Tc3 = 11.5 Tc1² = 506.25 Tc2² = 196 Tc3² = 132.25 ƩTc² = 834.5

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**STEP 4: Answer the following questions:-**

RISKY SHIFT FRIEDMAN BY HAND STEP 4: Answer the following questions:- How many conditions? C = How many participants? N =

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**STEP 4: Answer the following questions:-**

RISKY SHIFT FRIEDMAN BY HAND STEP 4: Answer the following questions:- How many conditions? C = 3 How many participants? N = 8

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RISKY SHIFT FRIEDMAN BY HAND STEP 5: Enter the values for ‘N’, ‘C’ and ‘ƩTc²’ into the formula below N = 8 C = 3 ƩTc² = 834.5

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RISKY SHIFT FRIEDMAN BY HAND STEP 5: Enter the values for ‘N’, ‘C’ and ‘ƩTc²’ into the formula below

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RISKY SHIFT FRIEDMAN BY HAND STEP 5: Enter the values for ‘N’, ‘C’ and ‘ƩTc²’ into the formula below

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RISKY SHIFT FRIEDMAN BY HAND STEP 6: Calculate the degrees of freedom df = C – 1 df = STEP 7: Determine statistical significance Assessing the statistical significance of r² depends on the number of participants and the number of groups. a) Less than 9 participants = Use a special table of critical values (on Graham’s website) b) 9 or more participants = Use a Chi-Square table (on Graham’s website) Χr² ( ) = , p

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RISKY SHIFT REMINDER: WILCOXON

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**You will need to attach the completed worksheet to your lab report.**

RISKY SHIFT WILCOXON BY HAND Now you should complete the “How to carry out a Wilcoxon Test” worksheet. Again, we will go through this with you. You will be working with a small data set again rather than the Risky Shift data set. You will need to attach the completed worksheet to your lab report.

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**STEP 1: Calculate the difference between scores**

RISKY SHIFT WILCOXON BY HAND STEP 1: Calculate the difference between scores Participant Condition A Condition B Difference 1 25 32 2 29 30 3 10 8 4 31 5 27 20 6 24 7 26 9 11 12

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**STEP 1: Calculate the difference between scores**

RISKY SHIFT WILCOXON BY HAND STEP 1: Calculate the difference between scores Participant Condition A Condition B Difference 1 25 32 -7 2 29 30 -1 3 10 8 4 31 5 27 20 7 6 24 -8 26 9 -2 11 -10 12 -28

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**STEP 2: Rank the differences**

RISKY SHIFT WILCOXON BY HAND STEP 2: Rank the differences Participant Condition A Condition B Difference Rank 1 25 32 -7 2 29 30 -1 3 10 8 4 31 5 27 20 7 6 24 -8 26 9 -2 11 -10 12 -28

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**STEP 2: Rank the differences**

RISKY SHIFT WILCOXON BY HAND STEP 2: Rank the differences Ignore the sign of the difference (whether it is positive or negative) If more participants have the same difference Add up the ranks they would take Divide this by the number of ranks For example: -1 is the lowest difference, of which there are 4. Add up the ranks: = 10, then divide this by the number of ranks: 10 / 4 = 2.5 Ignore differences of zero

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**STEP 2: Rank the differences**

RISKY SHIFT WILCOXON BY HAND STEP 2: Rank the differences Participant Condition A Condition B Difference Rank 1 25 32 -7 7.5 2 29 30 -1 2.5 3 10 8 5.5 4 31 5 27 20 7 6 24 -8 9 26 -2 Omit 11 -10 12 -28

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**STEP 3: Add together ranks belonging to scores with a positive sign**

RISKY SHIFT WILCOXON BY HAND STEP 3: Add together ranks belonging to scores with a positive sign Participant Condition A Condition B Difference Rank 1 25 32 -7 7.5 2 29 30 -1 2.5 3 10 8 5.5 4 31 5 27 20 7 6 24 -8 9 26 -2 Omit 11 -10 12 -28

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**STEP 3: Add together ranks belonging to scores with a positive sign**

RISKY SHIFT WILCOXON BY HAND STEP 3: Add together ranks belonging to scores with a positive sign Participant Condition A Condition B Difference Rank 1 25 32 -7 7.5 2 29 30 -1 2.5 3 10 8 5.5 4 31 5 27 20 7 6 24 -8 9 26 -2 Omit 11 -10 12 -28

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**STEP 4: Add together ranks belonging to scores with a negative sign**

RISKY SHIFT WILCOXON BY HAND STEP 4: Add together ranks belonging to scores with a negative sign Participant Condition A Condition B Difference Rank 1 25 32 -7 7.5 2 29 30 -1 2.5 3 10 8 5.5 4 31 5 27 20 7 6 24 -8 9 26 -2 Omit 11 -10 12 -28

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**STEP 5: Determine value of W**

Positive sign ranks: = 13 Negative sign ranks: =53 W-value is the smallest of these sums

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**STEP 6: Determine N N = Number of differences Omit zero differences**

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**STEP 7: Check critical value**

N .05 .025 .01 .005 9 8 6 3 2 10 11 5 14 7 12 17 13 21 26 16

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RISKY SHIFT YOUR CHOICE YOU HAVE THE REST OF THE SESSION TO FOCUS ON WHAT YOU THINK YOU NEED TO IMPROVE YOUR UNDERSTANDING LAB REPORT NONPARAMETRICS Make sure you are happy with your interpretation of the SPSS output in relation to the three experimental hypotheses ,and make sure you know what needs to go into your lab report to get the best marks. Download ‘problem5’ and start to work through the questions related to the forthcoming related t-test (as well as some problems relating to correlation and regression).

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