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Classification The evolution of Complexity: single cell prokaryote to multicellular eukaryotes.

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Presentation on theme: "Classification The evolution of Complexity: single cell prokaryote to multicellular eukaryotes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classification The evolution of Complexity: single cell prokaryote to multicellular eukaryotes

2 Modern Classification System Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Archea, Bacteria, and Eukarya Archeabacteria, Eubacteria,Protista, Fungi, Plant, Animal First part of Scientific name Second part of Scientific name

3 3 Domains 1.Archea 2.Bacteria 3.Eukarya Bacteria once belonged to the same Kingdom, but through Molecular Biology and the study of evolution, Biologist realized they had critical differences and should be placed into their own category so the “Domain” classification level was created.

4 6 Kingdoms

5 Archea and Eubacteria Archeabacteria Kingdom –All prokaryotic single celled organisms. –Most ancient and extreme –Live in the harshest environments –Methanogens (anaerobic), thermoacidophiles (hot) and halophiles (salty) Eubacteria Kingdom –True bacteria, all prokaryotic single celled –Classified by their shape and gram staining

6 Review of Bacteria All bacteria: Reproduce asexually Single celled Have cell wall Single strand of DNA Some Bacteria: Autotrophic Heterotrophic move by flagella, slime, spiral motion Produce endospores which allow them to go dormant during hostile conditions Produce toxins

7 Kingdom Protista Kingdom of Mostly single celled organisms Categorized by their likeness to 3 other kingdoms All Eukaryotic some Autotrophic and some Heterotrophic

8 Algae- Plant like Protist Algae or Plant-like, Autotrophic, classified by pigment with no cell wall, some form elaborate colonies and multicellular structures (kelp and seaweed)

9 Protozoa or Animal like Protist Protozoa or Animal-like, classified by mode of movement –Include many organisms that cause disease like Trypanosoma (African Sleeping Sickness) and Plasmodium (Malaria)

10 Fungus-like Protista Fungus-like are all Heterotrophic with no cell wall, absorbing nutrients directly through cell membrane –Include Slime Molds and Downy Mildews

11 Kingdom Fungi All Eukaryotic Multicellular Heterotrophs –detrivores living off dead and decaying organisms or decomposers) Fungi are important part of an ecosystem because they recycle nutrients/ decomposers Mycoses is the term for Fungal Infection, Fungus destroys the cells around the infection site –To fight fungal infection you have to destroy the cell wall of the fungus

12 Kingdom Plante Multicellular Eukaryotic Autotrophs Not capable of movement Reproduce sexually some produce spores and others seeds. Most have vascular tissues which include roots, stems, and leaves, and specialized tissues called xylem and phloem.

13 Plant Reproduction Plants reproduce in two ways: –Spore Producers Include ferns, horsetail, and mosses –Seed Producers Gymnosperms – make cones –Pine, fir, spruce, gingko, etc Angiosperms – have flowers and make fruit or nuts –Apple, oak, pecan, roses, beans, tobacco

14 Kingdom Animalia Multicellular Eukaryotic no cell wall Heterotrophs capable of movement reproduce sexually body symmetry (radial or bilateral) 9 Phyla- 8 invertebrate and 1 vertebrate

15 Invertebrates Do not have a backbone Filter feeders in the ocean –Clams, corals, octopus Insects –Cockroach, ticks, house fly

16 Vertebrates Have a backbone (Chordate notachord) Complex body systems Sexual reproduction (internal or external fertilization) 5 classes: –Fish –Amphibians –Reptiles –Birds –Mammals

17 Adaptations for Defense: Mechanical- physical structures Chemical- stinging sensations, poisons, bad taste, paralysis Camouflage- color or pattern that blend into environment –Disruptive- ex zebra –Cryptic- ex chameleon and squid –Countershading- ex Fish have light belly and dark back

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