2 High Middle Ages High Middle Ages The Middle Ages in Europe had reached a high point in the 1200’s.Life had finally stabilized and become peaceful.REVIEW: Why? What events have helped stabilize life?The Crusades were fought against the Islamic Empire!Feudalism was endingTrade increasedRoman roads were rebuilt.The Church had much political powerEngland and France had become large kingdoms!Created Magna Carta and Parliaments
3 Life During the High Middle Ages Population growthManors grew into towns.Cities grewOld Roman cities grew and new cities developedParis: 150,000London: 40,000Florence: 100,000Construction of cathedralsRomanesque and GothicTrade began againMoney economy emergedMiddle class emerged“Burgers” (German)“Bourgeoisie” (French)Guilds emergedBusiness associationsSet price, establish standards, etc.Master and Apprentice
4 Life During the High Middle Ages Universities emergeOxford, 1264University of Paris, c.1200Law, medicine, theology.Tried to build upon Islamic knowledge gained during the Crusades!Europeans started speaking in the vernacular.Local languages (not Latin!)Famous writers of the time…Dante (1265 – 1321 A.D.)The Divine Comedy (Dante’s Inferno)Chaucer (1340 – 1400 A.D.)The Canterbury TalesEnglish!
5 Power of the ChurchAs kingdoms became more powerful and European society became more secular, the Catholic Church attempted to hold onto its power…Concordat of WormsChurch officials can only be appointed by higher ranking church officials – not Kings.Church is independent.Pope Innocent IIIBelieved the power of the Pope was superior to any king“Just as the moon gets her light from the sun, and is inferior to the sun… so the royal power gets the splendor if its dignity from the papal authority.”
6 Power of the Church The Pope had ways to make kings do what he wants! Two “spiritual weapons”ExcommunicationRemoval from the ChurchInterdictForbids priests from performing the sacraments to a certain group of people.Weddings, communion, confession, etc…
7 The Reconquista (of Spain) In addition to the continuing the later Crusades, the Catholic church also tried to expel Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula (Spain!)Also instituted the “Spanish Inquisition”
8 Power of the Church The Inquisition Began in Spain during the Reconquista, but later spread to the rest of Europe.Found and prosecuted hereticsThose who deny church doctrine (non-Christians)If you confessed to heresy, you performed public penance and received physical punishmentStarting around 1252, the Inquisition began using torture to get confessions.Even if you did not confess, you were still guilty.If you had already been convicted and were accused of heresy again, you were executed.
9 The InquisitionCRITICAL THINKING: Why did the Church believe that what they were doing was the right thing to do?They believed the only path to heaven was through the Catholic Church.So using force to save souls was the right thing to do!
11 Late Middle Ages In the 1300’s, a few disastrous changes took place. Life becomes destabilized and chaotic… again.Late Middle AgesThe Hundred Years’ WarChurch Power DeclinesThe Black Death
12 Hundred Years’ WarWar between England and France over the heir to the French thrown.English King Edward III could claim it, but France did not want a distant king.Joan of ArcFrench girl who had visions/premonitions, brought success to the French army, was captured by the British, tried before the Inquisition, and burned at the stake for being a witch.GunpowderAllowed for French victory.
13 The Decline of Church Power… European Kings start to reject the ultimate power of the pope by the end of the 1200’s.King of France is one of the first to challenge the Pope’s powerKing Philip IV vs. Pope Boniface VIIIPhilip believes he has the right to tax the ChurchAfter two elections, there are two popes from 1378 to 1417.One in AvignonOne in RomeThese conflicts greatly diminish the power of the Pope.
14 Black Death Bubonic Plague Europe’s Population = 75 million 1/3 to 1/2 die between 1347 and 1351.50% to 60% dead in Italian cities.Why did they believe it was happening?God had sent it as punishment.Devil was causing it.Jews were poisoning town wells.Economic consequencesTrade declinedShortage of workersFalling food prices