Presentation on theme: "Weeks 10 2008IS33 KM 1 COMP3470 IS33 People-Centred Information Systems Development Week 10 Domain: Knowledge Management School of Computing FACULTY OF."— Presentation transcript:
Weeks 10 2008IS33 KM 1 COMP3470 IS33 People-Centred Information Systems Development Week 10 Domain: Knowledge Management School of Computing FACULTY OF Engineering
IS33 KM2 Weeks 10 2008 Background Results of BPR: downsizing, getting rid of middle management (non-value added), losing organisational memory Realised that knowledge is one of the important assets and need proper management! (late 90s) …this is still a very active research area as more intelligent tools can be explored.
IS33 KM3 Weeks 10 2008 What is Knowledge Management Quoted in Brown & Duguid:..the use of technology to make information relevant and accessible wherever that information may reside. To do this effectively requires the appropriate application of the appropriate technology for the appropriate situation. KM incorporates systematic processes of finding, selecting, organizing, and presenting information in a way that improves an employees comprehension and use of business assets...from Microsoft web site
IS33 KM4 Weeks 10 2008 Types of Knowledge and Transfer Processes Two types of knowledge – explicit and tacit (examples?) 4 ways in which knowledge transfer can occur: Tacit -> Explicit (Externalisation) Explicit -> Explicit (Combination) Explicit -> Tacit (Internalisation) Tacit -> Tacit (Socialisation)
IS33 KM5 Weeks 10 2008 Specific examples of IT support: Case-based reasoning systems http://www.aiai.ed.ac.uk/links/cbr.html http://www.aiai.ed.ac.uk/technology/casebasedreaso ning.html (for an update) http://www.aiai.ed.ac.uk/technology/casebasedreaso ning.html Customer relationship management (CRM) http://www.microsoft.com/dynamics/crm/product/dem os.mspx (covered in IS23) http://www.microsoft.com/dynamics/crm/product/dem os.mspx Collaborative environments BSCW, Google groups etc… (covered in IS23) Recommender systems Your will learn more in GI32 Digital Libraries http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/, e-resources from LU library home page http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/
IS33 KM6 Weeks 10 2008 A Case Study in Leeds: from VSP to VKP Tackling Knowledge Management and Knowledge Transfer at the University of Leeds since early 1990s. A range of systems (IT and non-IT) was put in place.
IS33 KM7 Weeks 10 2008 Knowledge Level Information Explicit (formalised) knowledge Tacit (experimental) knowledge Individual Group Organisation Virtual Organisation Knowledge Management Map Applied to a Higher Education Institution Knowledge Diffusion 2. Apprenticeship/ mentoring (small group tutorials) 1. Face-to-face contacts 9. External contacts, alliances, collaboration 5. Innovation/activities in research centres 10. Share/capture, transfer and reuse of knowledge 3. Training and professional development 6. Discussion forums, communities of practice (Research committees, mailing lists, newsgroups, …) 8. External information sources (Quality Assurance Agency; Research Council best practice guidelines,...) 7. Internal information sources 11.Monitoring/technology watch (Refund, Foresight, etc.) 4. Materials (journals, books, CD-ROM ) Adapted from Broadbent, M. (1997),
IS33 KM8 Weeks 10 2008 Notes on the Knowledge map Access to information (4,7,8 & 11) E.g. Hybrid library & Databases Forums for dynamic exchange of explicit (and tacit) knowledge (3, 6 & 11) Discover and communicate with experts (1, 5 and 9) Discovering experts within an organisation is important Remark – only form 4 is the traditional concern of a University Librarian Numbers refer to the knowledge map on the last slide
IS33 KM9 Weeks 10 2008 Using the Knowledge Map Organisational Level shared information sources and documents; directory of services awareness services Group Level Provides spaces for team working Provides common set of tools to enable sharing within a community or team Individual Level Provide personalised services
IS33 KM10 Weeks 10 2008 KM Critiques – Brown & Duguid 1) Knowledge usually entails a knower 2) Knowledge requires knowers understanding and some degree of commitment 3) Knowledge is harder to transfer (compared with information) Hence, management of knowledge cannot be the same as management of other company assets… people count more than ever and we need to understand the issues better!
IS33 KM11 Weeks 10 2008 What else is needed – B&D Community of practice - Look at knowledge to practice and groups of practitioners (In getting a job done, learning, sharing and using knowledge appear almost indivisible) Difference between know that and know how (the latter needs practice) The ability to recognise knowledge /expertise and the knower?? Revisit pp. 97-103 of B & D, Chapter 4 – what kind of knowledge was being transferred amongst the Xerox technical representatives ?