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Corpus Linguistics for Understanding the Quran

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Presentation on theme: "Corpus Linguistics for Understanding the Quran"— Presentation transcript:

1 Corpus Linguistics for Understanding the Quran
Eric Atwell, Kais Dukes, Nora Abbas, Abdul-Baquee Muhammad I-AIBS Institute for Artificial Intelligence and Biological Systems School of Computing University of Leeds

2 The Challenge: An interdisciplinary approach to understanding the Quran
(1) Quranic Studies (3) Computational Linguistics (2) Traditional Arabic Linguistics

3 (1) What is the Quran? The last in a series of 5 religious texts
Holy Book Prophet Text Dated Suhuf Ibrahim (Scrolls) Abraham ? The Tawrat (Torah) Moses 1500 BCE? The Zabur (Psalms) David 1000 BCE? The Injil (Gospel) Jesus 1 CE The Quran Muhammad (PBUH) CE

4 The central religious text of Islam
(1) What is the Quran? The central religious text of Islam - Classical Arabic Islamic Law (legal logic) Divine guidance & direction Scientific & philosophical knowledge Has inspired many scientific achievements, e.g. Algebra and linguistics

5 (2) Traditional Arabic Linguistics
Originated in Arabs studying the language of the Quran (detailed analysis for at least 1000 years): - Orthography (diacritics and vowelization) - Etymology (Semitic roots) - Morphology (derivation and inflection) - Syntax (origins of dependency grammar) - Discourse Analysis & Rhetoric - Semantics & Pragmatics

6 (3) Computational Linguistics
Where are we now? Current use of computing to analyze the Quran is mostly… - Keyword search (useful) - Frequency analysis (numerology?)

7 (3) Computational Linguistics
- How far can we go? - Is an artificial intelligence system realistic? Example question-answering dialog system: Question How long should I breastfeed my child for? Answer Mothers should suckle their offspring for two years, if the father wishes to complete the term (The Holy Quran, Verse 2:233).

8 An AI approach to understanding the Quran
Central Hypothesis Augmenting the text of the Quran with rich annotation will lead to a more accurate AI system. - Prepare the data by annotating the Quran. - Use the data to build an AI system for concept search and question-answering.

9 Annotating the Quran Challenges
Orthography - Complex script verified in Unicode? Morphology - Arabic is highly inflected and this is challenging to model by computer Syntax - Phrase structure or dependency grammar? Semantics – lexical semantics, ontology, logic, lexical frames?

10 Annotating the Quran Solutions
- Recent computational advances have made possible annotating the Quran to very high accuracy - Community effort using volunteers - Leverage existing resources from Traditional Arabic Grammar - Automatic annotation followed by manual verification

11 Recent Advances: Orthography
Does an accurate digital copy of the Quran exist? Encoding Issues Missing diacritics Simplified script (not Uthmani) Windows code page 1256, not Unicode Google Search for verse (68:38) on Jan 21, 2008 shows many typos

12 Recent Advances: Orthography
Tanzil Project ( Stable version released May 2008 Uses Unicode XML encoding, including the special characters designed for the complex Arabic script of the Quran Manually verified to 100% accuracy by a group of experts who have memorized the entire text of the Quran

13 Recent Advances: Orthography
Java Quran API ( March 2009 Java classes for querying the Tanzil XML of the Quran First step towards software package for analyzing the Quran

14 Recent Advances: Morphology
- Buckwalter Arabic Morphological Analyzer (2002) Morphological Analysis of the Quran at the University of Haifa, Israel (2004) - Lexeme & feature based morphological representation of Arabic (Nizar Habash, 2006)

15 The Haifa Corpus (2004) Multiple analysis for each word (up to 5)
rbb+fa&l+Noun+Triptotic+Masc+Sg+Pron+Dependent+1P+Sg rbb+fa&l+Noun+Triptotic+Masc+Sg+Gen Not a manually verified corpus Authors reports an F-measure of 86% Non-standard annotation scheme not familiar to traditional Arabic linguists (e.g. extracting a list of all verbs in the corpus is non-trivial) Arabic text is only encoded phonetically instead of using the original Arabic. Searching for the possible morphological analyses for a specific word is not easy

16 The Quranic Arabic Corpus
- Manually verified (99% accuracy) Poplar website with very positive feedback million(s) of visitors 1. Initial tagging using Buckwalter Analyzer 2. Paid annotator working for 3 months 3. Community of volunteers verifying against existing books of Traditional Arabic Grammar which analyse the Quran Shows Arabic and English morphological analysis side-by-side, with phonetic transcription, search and translation.

17 The Quranic Arabic Corpus
Kais Dukes Arabic Language Computing Applied to the Quran – PhD (part-time) an open-source online focus for linguistic research on Classical Arabic: morphology - each word shows colour-coded morphological analysis syntax - each verse shows dependecy parse following Arabic tradition semantics - entitites and concepts are linked to an ontology translation - word-for-word English translations to aid understanding Machine Learning - annotations provide training data for a parser Impact on society - dozens of researchers collaborated on the analysis and over a million visitors have used the website this year.

18 The Quranic Arabic Corpus Part-of-speech Tagging
Part-of-speech tags adapted from Traditional Arabic Grammar, and mapped to English equivalents (not the other way around) These tags apply to words in the Quran, as well as to individual morphological segments in the text Part-of-speech Tag Name Arabic Name N Noun اسم PN Proper noun اسماء علم PRON Personal pronoun ضمير DEM Demonstrative pronoun اسم اشارة REL Relative pronoun اسم موصول ADJ Adjective صفة V Verb فعل P Preposition حرف جر PART Particle حرف INTG Interrogative particle حرف استفهام VOC Vocative particle حرف نداء NEG Negative particle حرف نفي FUT Future particle حرف استقبال CONJ Conjunction حرف عطف NUM Number رقم T Time adverb ظرف زمان LOC Location adverb ظرف مكان EMPH Emphatic lām prefix لام التوكيد PRP Purpose lām prefix لام التعليل IMPV Imperative lām prefix لام الامر INL Quranic initials حروف مقطعة

19 The Quranic Arabic Corpus Verified Uthmani Script
Unicode Uthmani Script Sourced from the verified Tanzil project

20 The Quranic Arabic Corpus Phonetics (faja'alnāhumu)
Phonetic transcription generated algorithmically Guided by Arabic vowelized diacritics

21 The Quranic Arabic Corpus Interlinear translation
Word-for-word translation from accepted sources Interlinear translation scheme

22 The Quranic Arabic Corpus Location Reference (21:70:4)
Common standard for verses (Chapter:Verse) Extended in the QAC corpus to include word numbers and segment numbers, e.g. (21:70:4:2)

23 The Quranic Arabic Corpus Morphological Segmentation
Division of a single word into multiple segments Part-of-speech tag assigned to each segment - Traditional Arabic Grammar rules used for division

24 The Quranic Arabic Corpus Morphological segment features

25 The Quranic Arabic Corpus Arabic Grammar Summary

26 The Quranic Arabic Treebank Syntactic Annotation
Dependency Grammar based onإعراب (i'rāb) Syntactico-semantic roles for each word

27 The Quranic Arabic Treebank What’s new about this research?
First Treebank of Classical Arabic Free Treebank of the Quran - Well-defined formal representation of Traditional Arabic Grammar using hybrid constituency/dependency graphs

28 Automatic Annotation Classical Arabic Dependency Parser
Joakim Nivre (2009) dependency parsing using a shift/reduce queue/stack architecture with machine learning Following similar architecture, but with hand written rules, custom parser has an F-measure of 77.2%

29 Quran ‘Search for a Concept’ Tool
Nora Abbas developed the first Quran "search for a concept" tool and website, Qurany; Noorhan Abbas. Qurany: A Tool to Search for Concepts in the Quran (PDF). MSc by Research Thesis, School of Computing, Leeds University, 2009

30 Quran ‘Search for a Concept’ Tools
The SearchTruth tool 48% Search Truth The Holy Quran Viewer tool 34% Holy Quran Viewer The University of Southern California tool 49% MSA-USC Qur’an Database What the available Quran tools on the net provide? What is the main problem with these tools? What about the Recall value of their results? What is the main reason for these poor results?

31 Quran ‘Search for a Concept’ Tool
What is a CONCEPT? NOT just a “keyword” “index term” in a textbook?

32 Quran ‘Search for a Concept’ Tool
General/Abstract Concepts: Women’s financial status Main pillars of Islam Characteristics of Paradise Concrete Concepts: Names of places (Makkah, Mecca, Meccah) Names of prophets, angels,…etc. (Musa, Moses) Names of Holy Books (The Book (Bible), Bible, New Testament)

33 Quran ‘Search for a Concept’ Tool
1 2 3 4 5 What does my tool look like? 6

34 Quran ‘Search for a Concept’ Tool
Handling the Concrete Concepts Eight Parallel English Translations Search for one English word or a group of words in one search request Search for one Arabic word or a group of words in one search request Search for a mixed list of Arabic and English words in one search request Offers a list of synonyms for the English words

35 Quran ‘Search for a Concept’ Tool
General/Abstract Concepts It is imported from ‘Mushaf Al Tajweed’ index of topics published by Dar Al-Maarifa in Syria. The tool has 15 main concepts. The tool covers all the concepts in both languages Arabic and English. The total number of concepts covered is 1170. For example, to represent: Women’s financial status Main pillars of Islam Characteristics of Paradise

36 Knowledge representation and text mining of the Qur'an
Abdul-Baquee Muhammad

37 Qur'anic Applications Text Mining The Quran
Verse similarity: Allows you to see all verses that share a certain percent of characters with your input verse. Quranic Chapter Relatives allows you to see the strongest relatives of a given Quran Chapter. Word Cloud: See word clouds of a sura or group of suras of the Qur'anic. Qur'an Concordance: Concordance over lemma. Part-of-Speech Display of Sura: View a sura of the Qur'an with color-coded Part of speech tags. Quranic word co-occurence: Allows you to enter a quranic terms to finds its most frequent neighbors. N-gram Search: Search upto 5-gram phrases of the Quran with a frequency of 5 or more. Pronoun References: Given a verse, see all pronoun references within this verse. List of Concepts: See a list of concepts arising from Pronoun referents in the Quran.

38 AI for understanding the Quran
Kais Dukes developed the first online annotated linguistic resource which shows the Arabic "irab" morphology and grammar for each word and verse in the Holy Quran, the Quranic Arabic Corpus including word-by-word morphology and English gloss, and Ontology of Quranic concepts; Nora Abbas developed the first Quran "search for a concept" tool and website, Qurany; Abdul-Baquee Sharaf developed tools and resources for text mining the Quran including verse similarity, lemma concordance and collocation, and text mining the Hadeeth

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