# To an observer on Earth, the bright and dark portions of the moon appear to change shape during each phase. The diagram, however, shows that during each.

## Presentation on theme: "To an observer on Earth, the bright and dark portions of the moon appear to change shape during each phase. The diagram, however, shows that during each."— Presentation transcript:

To an observer on Earth, the bright and dark portions of the moon appear to change shape during each phase. The diagram, however, shows that during each phase, one half of the moon is dark and one half is reflecting sunlight. – Describe the appearance of the moon as seen from Earth in the new moon, waxing crescent, waxing gibbous, and full moon phases. 9 8 10 20 180 7 5 2 3 4 40 6 30 130 140 50 120 70 60 1 160 170 110 150 90 80 100 Time Remaining: Seconds

The new phase is when the moon is between the sun and Earth
The new phase is when the moon is between the sun and Earth. Light from the sun strikes the side of the moon that is not visible from Earth. Therefore the moon appears dark. The crescent phase follows the new phase. In this phase, the moon is positioned such that a small portion of the lit side of the moon is facing Earth. Most of the lit side, however, is still facing away from Earth. Therefore, most of the moon appears dark. The gibbous phase follows the crescent phase. As the moon continues its orbit, the portion of its lit side that is visible increases. During this phase, most of the lit side of the moon is facing Earth.

Draw a diagram showing the positions of the sun, Earth, and the moon during the moon's new phase.
Draw a picture to show how the moon appears to an observer on Earth during the moon's new phase. 9 8 10 20 180 7 5 2 3 4 40 6 30 130 140 50 120 70 60 1 160 170 110 150 90 80 100 Time Remaining: Seconds

In the figure below, arrows show the direction of the orbits of Earth and the moon – Complete the figure above by drawing the position of the moon during its waning crescent phase. – Draw a picture to show how the moon appears to an observer on Earth during its waning crescent phase. 9 8 10 20 180 7 5 2 3 4 40 6 30 130 140 50 120 70 60 1 160 170 110 150 90 80 100 Time Remaining: Seconds

– Describe how the length of the days in the Northern Hemisphere changes with the four seasons. – Explain two characteristics of Earth that cause the changes in the length of the days through the seasons. Be sure to identify how these two factors lead to changes in day length. 9 8 10 20 180 7 5 2 3 4 40 6 30 130 140 50 120 70 60 1 160 170 110 150 90 100 80 Time Remaining: Seconds

In the Northern Hemisphere, the longest days are in the summer months
In the Northern Hemisphere, the longest days are in the summer months. The day length decreases through the fall. In winter, days are shortest. Day length increases during the spring. Earth's revolution around the Sun is a major cause of the changing day length. The revolution takes one year, which is the same time it takes day length to decrease and increase. Revolving around the Sun causes the Northern Hemisphere to point toward the Sun in the summer, which leads to long days, and point away from the Sun in the winter, which leads to short days. Different parts of Earth point towards or away from the Sun at different times of the year because Earth is tilted on its axis.

– Identify two properties of Earth that cause it to have changing seasons. – Explain the effect of each of the properties you named. 9 8 10 20 180 7 5 2 3 4 40 6 30 130 140 50 120 70 60 1 160 170 110 150 90 80 100 Time Remaining: Seconds

Earth's tilted axis and Earth's revolution around the Sun are the properties that lead to Earth's changing seasons. During winter in Texas, Earth's tilt causes the Northern Hemisphere to be pointed away from the Sun. This means the Sun's rays are spread out over a large area. During summer, the Northern Hemisphere is pointed toward the Sun. Sunlight is less spread out, so areas get more solar energy and heat up. As Earth revolves around the Sun, the tilt of its axis does not change. So, when Earth gets to the other side of the Sun, it is tilted so that the Northern Hemisphere is away from the Sun.

Saturday evening there was a LUNAR ECLIPSE
Saturday evening there was a LUNAR ECLIPSE. Explain what happened with the Earth, Moon, and Sun. Include a diagram in your explanation. 9 8 10 20 30 7 6 2 3 4 5 50 40 60 140 180 120 130 70 170 1 110 160 100 150 90 80 Time Remaining: Seconds

The Earth is between the moon and sun
The Earth is between the moon and sun. The shadow of the Earth falls on the moon.

Over the holidays, the WINTER SOLSTICE occurred
Over the holidays, the WINTER SOLSTICE occurred. Described what happened on this day. 9 8 10 20 180 7 6 2 3 4 5 40 30 50 140 120 130 70 60 160 1 170 90 150 80 100 110 Seconds Remaining. This screen will disappear in 3 minutes.

The Earth is getting indirect energy from the Sun.
The planet's axis is tilted at its most away from the sun, and marks the shortest day (least hours of sunlight) and the beginning of winter, (in the southern hemisphere this is the summer solstice). The Earth is getting indirect energy from the Sun.

Today is the vernal equinox.
Explain what this is including a description of the Earth & Sun. 9 8 10 20 180 7 5 2 3 4 40 6 30 130 140 50 120 70 60 1 160 170 110 150 90 80 100 This screen will disappear in 3 minutes. Seconds Remaining.

Day and night are about equal in length all over the world.
The sun is positioned above the equator, so the tilt of the Earth is neither toward, nor away from the Sun. Day and night are about equal in length all over the world. It is the Autumnal Equinox in the Southern Hemisphere.

Our days are getting longer and longer (more minutes of sunlight each day).
Why? How long will this last? 9 8 10 20 180 7 5 2 3 4 40 6 30 130 140 50 120 70 60 1 160 170 110 150 90 80 100 This screen will disappear in 3 minutes. Seconds Remaining.

As the Earth revolves around the Sun, the northern hemisphere is tilted more and more towards the Sun. More direct rays of the Sun are hitting the northern hemisphere for longer periods of time. This will continue as until the Summer Solstice – June 21 – when the revolution of the Earth around the Sun will begin to cause the tilt to be away from the Sun.

Describe: Summer solstice Winter solstice Vernal equinox Autumnal equinox 9 8 10 20 30 7 5 2 3 4 180 6 40 130 140 50 120 70 60 1 160 170 110 150 80 100 90 Seconds left:

Summer solstice - Approximately June 22 in the Northern Hemisphere when the sun is highest in the sky and directly overhead at the Tropic of Cancer. First official day of summer. Longest day of the year. Winter solstice - Approximately December 22 in the Northern Hemisphere when the sun is lowest in the sky and directly overhead at Tropic of Capricorn. First official day of winter. Shortest day of the year. Vernal equinox - The equinox at which the sun approaches the Northern Hemisphere and passes directly over the equator. Occurs around March 20. First official day of spring. Equal days and night all over the world.. Autumnal equinox - The equinox at which the sun approaches the Southern Hemisphere and passes directly over the equator. Occurs around September 23. First official day of fall. Equal days and night all over the world..

Explain the effect of direct and indirect energy on seasons.
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When the Earth is tilted toward the Sun, it receives direct energy – energy that is concentrated over a smaller area. This causes hotter temperatures. (Summer) When the Earth is tilted away from the Sun, it receives indirect energy – energy that is spread out over a larger area. This causes cooler temperatures. (Winter)

How many daylight hours do people in different places on Earth experience during an equinox?
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12 hours because day and night are equal

How do the rotation and revolution of the Earth differ?
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Rotation is the turning on an axis; revolution is orbiting another body

Explain the Sun’s position compared to the Earth during the equinoxes and solstices.
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During the summer solstice in the northern hemisphere, the Sun reaches it’s greatest distance north of the equator and is directly over the Tropic of Cancer. During the winter solstice in the northern hemisphere, the Sun reaches it’s greatest distance south of the equator and is directly over the Tropic of Capricorn. During an equinox, the Sun is directly over the equator.

Orbit, axis, equinox, solstice
Define these terms: Orbit, axis, equinox, solstice 9 8 10 20 30 7 5 2 3 4 180 6 40 130 140 50 120 70 60 1 160 170 110 150 80 100 90 SECONDS LEFT:

ORBIT – the path that an object makes, around another object
AXIS – an imaginary line about which the Earth rotates. EQUINOX – the time when the sun crosses the earth's equator, making night and day of approximately equal length all over the earth and occurring about March 21 (the spring or vernal equinox) and September 22 (autumnal equinox). SOLSTICE – the moment the Sun is farthest north (in June) or south (in December) in the sky. The June (summer) solstice is the longest day of the year in the northern hemisphere, while the December (winter) solstice is the shortest day.

Tomorrow is the Autumnal Equinox.
Draw a diagram to illustrate the positions of the Earth, Moon, and Sun 9 8 10 20 30 7 5 2 3 4 180 6 40 130 140 50 120 70 60 SECONDS LEFT: 160 170 1 150 100 90 80 110

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